Postgraduate D.V. Abramovich
Associate Professor E.G. Shporin
National Research Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk
Keywords: physical education, physical fitness, monitoring, domiciliary public sport activities.
Introduction. The 21st century is remarkable for the dynamic development of high technologies and the Internet, which have become a universal and powerful communication tool for millions of people, integrated into the school educational environment, provided interesting, amusing and, at the same time, sedentary leisure centered around social media networks, online games and shopping, watching thousands of videos, getting the latest updates on the video industry and scrolling the news feed. Such a sluggish lifestyle leads to hypodynamia, health deterioration at the school age, increased incidence rate and decreased functional capacities of the body.
Today, it is an undeniable fact that the poor health of children, teenagers and young adults will only get worse, if their interest in physical culture and sport is not stimulated and maintained properly. According to the research by Aksel Ivanovich Berg, in the 19th century industrial workers would consume 94 percent of the muscle energy, while at the present day the amount of the consumed energy constitutes 1 percent. It all closely relates to the working capacity, concentration skills and speed of work performance.
Within the “Bringing Sport to the Street” project implementation, over 30 outdoor fitness gyms were built in all municipalities of the Irkutsk Region. These public sport facilities, being the municipal property, are controlled by the Municipal public establishment “The city sport and methodological center” on the basis of operational administration; the establishment carries out maintenance of the urban sport facilities, manages and organizes public activities for children, teenagers and young adults by holding regular classes and public sport events. These activities contributed to the increased natural interest of the municipality residents in physical culture and sport activities . According to the statistics, the percentage of the Irkutsk residents engaged in physical culture and sport activities on a regular basis has increased from 16.5 percent in 2010 to 25.1 percent in 2014. The increase of the indicator value was determined by several factors, one of which was the increased number of local sport facilities.
Objective of the research was to analyze the impact of additional domiciliary physical education lessons on physical fitness indices of secondary school-age pupils.
Methods and structure of the research. In order to achieve the set objective, we have conducted an educational experiment, with two groups of children and teenagers examined: the first (reference) group included children and teenagers taking physical education lessons and attending training sessions for two hours three times a week (table tennis, volleyball, basketball, football, badminton) in one of the three sport clubs running at the premises of general education institutions; in the second (study) group, apart from physical education lessons, the pupils were engaged in competitive sports, track-and-field athletics and domiciliary conditioning sessions conducted at 20 outdoor fitness gyms by the same schedule (for two hours three times a week) monitored by the supervising instructors of the Municipal public establishment “Cty sport and methodological center”. The experiment was carried out in two stages: the first stage (autumn) – at the beginning of an academic year, the second stage (spring) – before summer holidays. The subjects' physical fitness was assessed using the tests, which conformed to the Government resolution #916 of December 29, 2001 “Concerning the All-Russian system for monitoring of physical health of the population, physical development of children, teenagers and young adults” and the procedures of resolution implementation [1, 3, 4].
Results and discussion. During the first stage of the educational experiment the RG and SG boys aged 11 years were to do the “Crunches” exercise with the same number of repetitions for each group. Subsequently, the results of the study group were significantly better (р<0.05) at every stage, as compared to those of the reference group (Fig. 1). Statistically insignificant results were observed in 11-year-olds (autumn, spring) and during the autumn tests of the pupils aged 12, 13 and 15 years.
Fig. 1. Crunches indices dynamics (boys, adolescent males)
It should be noted that a consistent and sequential improvement was registered in the “Crunches” test results of the male pupils at each of the experiment stages. However, the test results of the female subjects in the SG were different: after the summer holidays, the results of the 12-year-olds remained the same, while in the 14 and 15 year-old females they declined by three and two points respectively (Fig. 2). Yet the flexor muscle strength indicators of the RG pupils were lower (except for the autumn results of the 13-, 15- and 16-year-olds) than those of the SG girls.
Fig. 2. Crunches indices dynamics (girls, adolescent females)
Conclusion. Regular physical training at local outdoor sport grounds combined with school sport club sessions increase physical fitness of secondary school-age pupils. Activities of the institution managing domiciliary public sport activities not only improve motor skills of Irkutsk residents but may become an effective alternative to sport club sessions.
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