Changes in kickboxer's labile body mass components during training exercise in case of different fatigue levels

Фотографии: 

Postgraduate A.A. Grishin1
Postgraduate A.V. Kolyada1
Dr.Hab., Professor A.I. Zaviyalov2
1National Research Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk
2Institute of Physical Culture, Sport and Health named after I.S. Yarygin, Krasnoyarsk State 3Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafiev, Krasnoyarsk

Keywords: kickboxing, body mass, labile components, ECG, martial arts.

Introduction. There is one fundamental distinctive feature that differentiates martial arts from many other sports - weight categories. In this view, the athletic training of kickboxers is based on a certain, pre-determined weight category. Obviously, correct assignment to a competition weight may determine an athlete’s success in a particular competition [1, 4].

At the same time, athlete’s body mass is an integral characteristic which gives no way for monitoring the actual state of the athlete. That is why, it is common practice in sport science to analyze the weight of the body mass components [1, 3]. Most often, it is the weight of the muscle and fat components that is analyzed.

In addition, in the XX century, various scientists conducted numerous studies of athletes’ cardiac activity. The research results make it possible to analyze training activity and determine the efficiency of management of sport training process [2]. There are many works by Russian and foreign scientists showing the efficiency of ECG measurements, rather than the outdated pulsometry, in the assessment of the fatigue level and physiological readiness of athletes, and thereto abroad they are successfully implementing the commercial systems such as automatic decoding ECG telemetry system (e.g. OmegaWave).

Objective of the study was to compare the changes in kickboxers’ labile body mass components in case of different fatigue levels.

Methods and structure of the study. The research was carried out at the premises of the kickboxing section of Irkutsk Youth Sports School №5 and lasted two months. The experiment involved 3 groups of athletes made of men aged 19 (±2) years, training at different times according to the program for groups of in-depth sport specialization.

The first group consisted of 21 athletes who trained up to the onset of acute fatigue (26-28 points of changes on ECG). The second group consisted of 22 athletes who trained up to the onset of minor or moderate fatigue (19-25 points). And the third group was made of 21 athletes who trained up to the onset of overfatigue.

Electrocardiogram was recorded before the training sessions and in-between the training tasks, the athletes trained up to the onset of the necessary state. At the end of each training session we measured the athletes’ total weight, and the percentage of the muscle and fat body mass.

ECG was registered in the DG5 lead, which according to Wilson corresponds to the V5 [2].

Results and discussion. The results obtained in the first group of athletes are represented in the chart and diagrams (Fig. 1, a, b). The average muscle mass after one month of training increased by 2% (significance of difference p<0.05), and by 2% more within the next month (significance of difference p<0.01). At the same time, the fat component of body mass decreased significantly.

In general, the results of the first group can be described as the corresponding optimal tactics of pre-contest training. It is a training exercise of developmental nature. The muscle mass rate (upper diagram) increases monotonically by almost 49-55%, and the fat body mass decreases by 7-10%. These data are well aligned with numerous studies in this field [3].

Figure 1. Changes in body mass components in the examined groups of athletes.

Note: changes in the muscle (a) and fat (b) mass in the first group; muscle (c) and fat (d) mass in the second group; muscle (d) and fat (e) mass in the third group; X-axis - duration of the study, Y-axis -% of the body mass.

In the second group (Fig. 1, c, d) of athletes, the changes in the body mass components indicate their poor physical fitness – the average value of the muscle component remains almost unchanged, while the average value of the fat component keeps increasing. However, the mathematical processing of the data obtained in the second group showed insignificant differences in the body mass components at the beginning and at the end of the study.

The results obtained in the third group (Fig. 1, e, f) indicate inadequate physical loads. The high total volume of work against the background of lacking compensatory work leads to a decrease in both muscle and fat components, and total weight of the athlete.

The muscle mass rate has decreased from 48-52% to 47.5-50% in two months (p<0.05). Fig. 26 represents the diagram showing how the fat component of body mass changes with time. According to our data, the fat component of body mass has decreased significantly in 45 days from 11-15.5% to 7-12.5% (p<0.05). However, after 45 days we observe a significant increase in the fat body mass of athletes, which may be explained by their stress state, due to which their bodies began to accrue energy reserves.

Conclusion.

  • Training of kickboxers with a rating of more than 28 points is not effective, as it leads to overfatigue.

  • Monitoring of labile components of body mass makes it possible to provide qualitative training of a combat athlete of a specific weight category. 

References

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  2. Zaviyalov A.I. Klassifikatsiya izmeneniy elektrokardiogrammy u zdorovogo cheloveka v pokoe i vo vremya fizicheskikh nagruzok (Classification of electrocardiogram changes in healthy person at rest and during exercise) / A.I. Zaviyalov // Vestnik KGPU im. V.P. Astafieva (Herald of KSPU n.a. V.P. Astafiev). – 2013. – № 4. – P. 147-152.
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  4. Stepanov M.Yu. Aprobatsiya tekhnologii individualizirovannoy predsorevnovatel'noy podgotovki kikbokserov (Testing technology of individualized pre-season training in kickboxing) / M.Yu. Stepanov // Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. – 2009. – № 7. – P. 35.