Body condition of Yugra residents subject to physical training during summer holiday in the South

Фотографии: 

Professor, PhD V.A. Vishnevskiy
Surgut State University, Surgut

Keywords: adaptation, physical fitness, holiday in the South.

Introduction. The issue of optimal vacation choice for the residents of the northern regions of the Russian Federation has not been settled so far. On the one hand, there is a belief that short-term climate change, incomplete adaptation and subsequent readaptation in relation to people living in a cold climate neutralize many recreational effects of the summer holidays in the South [1]. On the other hand, vacation in the region of domicile under conditions of low atmospheric oxygen level and high cyclonic activity level [4] is rather problematic too [2, 3].

Research objective was to study body condition of Yugra residents subject to physical training during summer holidays in the South.

Methods and structure of the research. The present study was conducted with a family spending summer holidays in the South. The first stage of research (the island of Rhodes) comprised the inquiry into the adaptation mechanisms in people of different age groups to the conditions of a vacation in the South on the basis of indicators of general physical and mental state, vitality, mood, physiological parameters and mental acuity derived from the Toulouse-Piéron test results. The second stage (Bulgaria) included three week-long microcycles consisting of training sessions geared to improve physical condition of the tourists: Monday, Thursday –flexor muscle groups exercises; Tuesday, Friday – extensor muscle groups exercises; Wednesday – triathlon (bicycling, cross running, swimming). Training sessions lasted 60-80 minutes. Weight training workout for major muscle groups included bodyweight exercises with 80 percent of maximum resistance. In order to examine the impact of physical training on the body condition, we have assessed the following: physical fitness, overall conditioning level and mental state, vitality, mood, resting heart rate at rest and in active orthostatic test, anthropometric measurements, weather conditions.

Results and discussion. The findings of the first research stage indicate that the outcomes of the summer holiday depend entirely on the initial autonomic tone in people. It was discovered that under Surgut conditions the children's autonomic balance is shifted towards sympathicotonia, while in adults it is classified as parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, which decreases adaptive capabilities in senior representatives. In the first few vacation days in the South, activation of the sympathetic nervous system was observed, although such a biological rhythm is characterized as being of a one-off nature. For instance, the reaction is less pronounced in children, who fall in the age-group category having the higher baseline level of activity in this division of the autonomic nervous system. Future adaptation prospects depend on the initial capacities as well. Increased vagal tone was observed in adults starting with the third day of vacation at risk of resulting in decreased immunological reactivity by the end of the holiday or on return date. Using the Kerdo vegetative index as a prognostic indicator assessing adaptive capabilities is justified since the parameter has a statistically significant correlation with overall conditioning and mental state (r = -0.380, p < 0.05), vitality (r = -0.481, p < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (BP, r = -0.610, p < 0.01), increase in heart rate (HR) in the orthostatic test (r = 0.476, p < 0.01), vital capacity (VC, r = -0.656, p < 0.01), wrist strength (r = -0.730, p < 0.01), efficiency of information processing speed (r = 0.527, p < 0.01).

Statistically significant positive changes were registered in the overall conditioning level and mental state of the family during and after the holiday time as opposed to the pre-vacation statistics. Particularly good indicators were recorded in the days when the objects had the higher systolic (r = 0.339, p < 0.05) and diastolic (r = 0.415, p < 0.01) resting blood pressure, diastolic (r = 0.501, p < 0.01) blood pressure in the orthostatic test, the lower activity level in the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system at rest (r = - 0.380, p < 0.05) and during the orthostatic test (r = -0.409, p < 0.01). Statistically significant difference was not observed in the parameter of average vitality level. At that, it positively correlated with resting diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.438, p < 0.01) and blood pressure in the orthostatic test (r = 0.488, p < 0.01); negative correlation was recorded with resting heart rate (r = -0.319, p < 0.05) and heart rate in the orthostatic test (r = -0.427, p < 0.01), sympathetic division performance at rest (r = -0.481, p < 0.01) and in the orthostatic test (r = -0.526, p < 0.01), information processing speed (r = -0.325, p < 0.05). Better mood was observed during the holiday, though it did not correlate with physiological indicators and mental acuity, thus, most likely, was determined by the social factor.

All stages of the summer holiday in the South had a beneficial impact on the information processing speed. The most substantial progress was registered during the first several days of vacation. In this case, information processing speed negatively correlated with vitality indicators (r = -0.325, p < 0.05), heart rate increase in the orthostatic test (r = 0.436, p < 0.01), pulse blood pressure in the orthostatic test (r = -0.335, p < 0.05), accuracy of information processing (r = 0.473, p < 0.01). The average accuracy rate of information processing also tended to improve during the holiday and on the family’s return to Surgut. However, statistically significant improvement is observed only in the week of staying in the South. It is important to note that the indicator of mental acuity positively correlates with resting heart rate (r = -0.313, p < 0.05), rate pressure product (r = -0.342, p < 0.05), information processing speed (r = 0.473, p < 0.01) and attention span (r = -0.872, p < 0.01). 

Results of the second research stage show that the choice of active summer activities in the South, considered above, allows for considerable improvement of physical fitness in people of different age groups. The most significant improvement is observed in the ‘pull-ups’ exercise results, the least significant – in ‘crunches’ (30 sec).

Functional values producing such result vary in the representatives of different age groups performing different exercises. Weight training showed no statistically significant changes in physical indicators of primary school age pupil with a low initial level of physical fitness. In teenager, it contributed to an increase of diastolic blood pressure (56.1±4.5 before workout versus 59.5±3.4 mmHg after workout, P<0.05) and a decrease of vital capacity (2848±191 before workout versus 2717±296 ml after workout, P<0.05), which may be a result of increase in abdominal and intrathoracic pressure following straining and breath holding. In adult, the same type of workout caused a decrease of pulse blood pressure (35.3±4.8 before workout versus 29.1±6.6 after workout, P<0.05) and was characterized by pulse blood pressure indicators different from those in the orthostatic test (13.4±2.7 before workout versus 17.6±3.7 bpm after workout, P<0.05); the workout also accelerated heart rate in supine (54±2.3 before workout versus 68.2±2.9 bpm after workout, P<0.05) and standing position (67.4±3.8 before workout versus 85.8±2.6 bpm after workout, P<0.05); increased sympathetic division activity (-24±7.6 before workout versus 4.1±4.1 conv. units after workout, P<0.05) and vital capacity (3601±207 before workout versus 3758±199 ml after, P<0.05).

A set of triathlon exercises produced the greater physiological response in all age groups (Table 1). At that, symptoms of decreased contractile function of cardiac muscle could be observed: low systolic blood pressure, high diastolic blood pressure, low pulse pressure. 

Table 1. Impact of triathlon on the subjects' body conditions          

Indicators

М±σ

Before workout

After workout

t-test  

Statistical significance

S.. (10 years of age)

SBP, standing position (mmHg)

105.2±3.8

101.2±3.1

2.52

P < 0.05

DBP, standing position (mmHg)

57.4±6.5

63.2±3.2

-2.28

P < 0.05

PBP, supine position (mm Hg)

51.6±2.6

47.8±3.9

2.88

P < 0.05

PBP, standing position (mmHg)

47.8±5.7

38±2.8

5.44

P < 0.05

M.. (14 years of age)

DBP, supine position (mmHg)

46.6±2.6

54.6±2.8

-7.01

P < 0.05

PBP, supine position (mmHg)

57.0±6.6

48.6±1.6

3.11

P < 0.05

Kerdo vegetative index (arb. units)  

35.9±5.1

25.6±7.7

2.27

P < 0.05

Vital capacity (ml)

2696±276

2816±211

-2.94

P < 0.05

D.. (67 years of age)

SBP, supine position (mmHg)

117±4.6

110.2±4.6

2.74

P < 0.05

DBP, standing position (mmHg)

74±1.4

79.8±5.8

-2.85

P < 0.05

HR, supine position (bpm) 

54.8±2.5

70.4±2.7

-9.22

P < 0.05

HR, standing position (bpm)

68.2±3.7

84.6±5.2

-14.06

P < 0.05

Kerdo vegetative index (conv. units)   

-22.5±8.7

6.1±3.6

-8.42

P < 0.05

Analysis of the results obtained in the course of three microcycles of training programs indicates that the detected signs of increased functional value of training sessions are the result of acute, rather than chronic fatigue.

Detailed analysis of the subjects' general physical and mental states is indicative of their decline by the second and third microcycles (r = -0.320, p< 0.05). Correlation was discovered between several objective indices of body condition, although it depends largely on individual characteristics of a person. The parameter of vitality has the closest correlations with objective indices of body condition. Vitality level had been reducing during the training sessions (r = -0.369, p< 0.05); it used to reach a minimal level under conditions of declined activity in the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (r = -0.346, p< 0.05). Then again, vitality depended greatly upon individual characteristics. The parameter of mood was far more consistent. Its characteristic pattern involved the indicators of pulse blood pressure before (r = 0.314, p< 0.05) and after (r = 0.342, p< 0.05) the workout: higher pulse blood pressure led to better mood. Individual differences in moods also could be distinguished according to certain specifics.

The factor of weather condition had an impact on the subjects' body conditions too. Thus, the temperature rise led to a decline in vitality (r = -0.305, p < 0.05), an increase in heart rate after training (r = -0.327, p < 0.05), greater difference between the indicators of vital capacity before and after the workout (r = 0.359, p < 0.05). The rise of atmospheric pressure increased the difference of systolic blood pressure in orthostatic test in supine and standing positions (r = -0.328, p < 0.05). An increase in atmospheric humidity was followed by the increased difference in the indicators of vital capacity before and after the workout (r = 0.290, p < 0.05). Windy conditions determined low pulse blood pressure (r = -0.303, p < 0.05). At the same time, individual characteristics of sensitivity to weather factors were revealed too.

Conclusion. The suggested option of spending a summer holiday in the South considerably contributed to physical fitness improvement, yet the signs of decreased contractile function of the cardiac muscle could be observed. Analysis of the results obtained in the course of three training microcycles showed that the observed signs of increased functional value of training sessions have resulted from acute, rather than chronic fatigue. At the same time, it demonstrates the necessity for the aspect of body reaction to physical exercises to be considered, otherwise, a cumulative effect of training and climatic adaptation may be observed. The obtained study results indicate the need for individual approach to interpretation of exercise and weather factors impact on subjective and objective indicators of a person’s body condition. 

References

  1. Aghajanyan N.A. Ekologiya cheloveka (Human ecology) / N.A. Aghajanyan, I.I. Makarova // Ekologiya cheloveka. – 2001. – № 1. – P. 4-8.
  2. Vishnevskiy V.A. Optimizatsiya letnego otdykha v lagere dnevnogo prebyvaniya v usloviyakh Khanty-Mansiyskogo avtonomnogo okruga – Yugry (Day camp summer vacation optimization in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region - Yugra) / V.A. Vishnevskiy, A.Sh. Bektimirov, S.I. Loginov // Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. – 2011. – № 4. – P. 83-88.
  3. Vishnevskiy V.A. Vliyanie letnego otdykha na Yuge na sostoyanie organizma zhiteley Yugry (Body state of Yugra residents after summer holidays in the South) / V.A. Vishnevskiy, N.A. Grishina, M.A. Monastyrev, S.A. Monastyirev // Sovershenstvovanie sistemy fizicheskogo vospitaniya, sportivnoy trenirovki, turizma i ozdorovleniya razlichnykh kategoriy naseleniya: mater. 12-2 Vserossiyskoy s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem nauchno-prakt. konf. (Improvement of the system of physical education, sports training, tourism and rehabilitation of various categories of population: Proc. of 12-2 Russian Scient. Conf. with international participation) Surgut: RC SSU, 2013. – V. 2. – P. 46-51.
  4. Katyukhin V.N. Ostraya pnevmoniya na Severe (Acute pneumonia in the North) / V.N. Katyukhin, V.A. Karpin, T.V. Zuevskaya. – Surgut: Defis, 2002. – 172 p.