Honoured Worker of Science of the RF, Professor, Dr.Biol. A.P. Isaev
Associate Professor, PhD V.V. Erlikh
Associate Professor, PhD V.V. Epishev
1Institute of Sport, Tourism and Service, South Ural State University (SRU), Chelyabinsk
Keywords: pose running, athletic training, monitoring, technology, concept, indicator, integration.
Background. The study was intended to help bridge the gaps in the inadequate theoretical and practical support and monitoring of the athletic training process, i.e. shortage of telemetric measurements, drawbacks in the study data processing by mathematical tools and procedures, superficiality of the traditional analytical methods and practices etc. The study was performed under the National Project of the RF Priority Development Area (PNR-5) “Supercomputing and grid-technologies for solving energy- and resource-saving-related problems” (RFFI #12-07-00443-а) and the Civil Code #2014/252 supported by the international grant financing provided to South Ural State University (SRU, Chelyabinsk) in the late 2015 [2, 3, 5]. Subject to the study was the integrated reactivity of mid-distance and steeplechase runner trained using the local/ regional muscular endurance (LRME) focused development method and simulated/ altitude hypoxic training method with permanent progress monitoring .
Methods and structure of the study. Subject to the study were young male (n=15) and female (n=16) athletes of 18-21 years of age qualified Candidates for Master of Sport (CMS) and Masters of Sport (MS) and a group of the elite athletes of the RF qualified Masters of Sport (MS) and World Class Athletes (WCA) and trained by the coaching team under leadership of V.M. Yevstratov (n=8). The study was performed using the following diagnostic instruments: computerized MBN-SCANNER system for vertebral spatial alignment profiling studies (registered by Reg. Certificate #FS022a2006/3226-06 dated 29.05.2006); stabilometric system made by MBN RF Company (registered by Reg. Certificate # 29/03010403/5416-03 dated 02.07.2003) applied for postural studies; the portable analyser AMP (express-laboratory) system for non-invasive studies including integrated blood circulation system analysis; metabolic system analysis; cardiopulmonary system and gas- exchange system analysis (registered by Reg. Certificate # FSZ 2008/02305).
Study results and discussion. Training progress monitoring procedure under the study generated in total 1132 performance indices that required a variety of statistical data processing methods being applied including the dispersion analysis, discriminant analysis and multiple regression analysis. The total body dimensional and compositional indices of the subject runners were found to stay within the reference zones of current/ long-term adaptation and energy supply variations .
The vertebral spatial alignment valuation studies (using 3D scanner) showed growth of the С2-С7 and Th1-Th12 arc hords and vector shifts of the physiological curvatures in the thoracic (С7- Th12 curvature) and lumbar (L1-L5 curvature) spine (p<0.03-0.01). Having compared the relevant plane projections, we found frontal shifts as verified by the lumbar spine inclination angles. The other test indices were significantly different (p<0.05-0.001). The frontal projection shifts were particularly prioritized in the subject men (with exclusion for the shoulder-pelvis angle) and lumbar spine shifts prioritized in women. In the sagittal plane projections, most prioritized in women appeared to be the С2-С7 curvature and the pelvis inclination angle. The six-month-long LRME training process was found to result in significant oscillation amplitude shifts in the sagittal plane spectrum in women in the eyes-closed left head turn tests, with the oscillation amplitude growing from 0.44±0.02 to 0.69±0.03 Hz (p<0.05); that is indicative of the asymmetric influence of the curve run on the frontal plane oscillation spectrum amplitudes, with the oscillation growing from 0.37±0.001 to 0.67±0.001 Hz (p<0.05). These study data gave us the grounds to find improvement of the biomechanical elements in the hurdle run training process. The variations of the pelvis curvatures and inclination angles make it possible to profile the individual postural traits of the female runners and the body positions/ stances in the postural run process.
Furthermore, the study identified gender specifics in the stabilometric data indicative of the statokinetic stability (SKS) of the tested athletes, with the specifics found mostly in the oscillation spectrum amplitudes (in the eyes-closed/ open head turn tests); squares and lengths of the statokinesiograms in the SKS rating tests; the stability indices; and the dynamic balance component (p<0.05-0.01). Significant differences were found by the comparative analysis of the overall pressure centre (OPC) positions in planes (p<0.05). It should be noted that men were found to dominate in absolute values and data variability rates (with 95% confidence interval). The mid-distance and steeplechase runners were tested with high SKS development rates.
Oscillation spectrum amplitudes in the frontal and sagittal planes of the subject men and women (respectively) were rated at 0.64 Hz and 0.30 Hz; and 0.48 Hz and 0.36 Hz; and after the 6-month training period the rates dropped to 0.59 Hz and 0.24 Hz (p<0.05); and 0.32 Hz and 0.24 Hz (p<0.05). The rates were found to depend on the OPC average migration indices. The degrees of freedom and position amplitudes of the main stance model in cyclic sports are variable, and the variability is verified by the oscillation spectrum . Postural run technique is designed to use gravitational forces, with the run cycle describable by a triad of indices, namely balance, potential energy and elasticity indices.
Final model of the spring-time long-term adaptation cycle was the following:
We applied the following process efficiency rates: band neutrophil count; creatine level; and glycogen level. The coefficient of determination was estimated at 52.65%.
The effective summer-time long-term adaptation model (for the period of main competitions) was the following:
Every ratio was found significant at the 85% confidence level. Adjusted determination ratio (R2adj) was estimated at 47.75˚; whilst the model was found significant at the 93% confidence level. Competitive result of the runs was found to depend on the basal pressure in sphincter Oddi; bilirubin level; haemoglobin level; and plasma protein level.
The autumn-time long-term adaptation final model was the following:
The autumn results were found to depend on the enzyme AST and lactic acid levels. The reduced model was the following:
In the seasonal athlete’s state and competitive performance model design process, the models were ranked as follows: spring model: 52.65%; summer model: 47.75%; autumn model: 34.80%; and winter model: 17.38%.
As found by the spectral analysis, the long-term adaptation process is determined by the domination of the blood flow regulation, cortical/ subcortical heart rhythm regulation, stroke volume (SV) and minute blood volume (MBV) regulation mechanisms with the amplitudes of rheo-waves in small vessels being on the rise (p<0.02). Mobilization of the cardio-haemodinamics appears to be due to the activation of the humoral/ hormonal and vegetative regulation mechanisms of the central blood flow, with the slow-wave oscillations growing in P2 range up to 44.46% and Р3 range up to 40.77%, with the high levels of peripheral blood circulation being maintained. The blood flow regulation in the breath-holding tests, one of the tests performed at the low altitudes (Kislovodsk) and the other test at high altitudes – showed the test data varying from Р1 to Р2 and from Р2 to Р3. The venous return rate and the overall amplitudes of the oscillation spectrum were found to increase (р<0.01) in the orthoprobe tests. In the first test phase (in response to hypoxemia, the O2 transporting systems were activated including the lung ventilation rates growing by 17.50%; vital capacity rates by 20.00%; and the gas exchange ratios by 21.00% (р<0.01)), the systolic and minute blood volumes were found to grow by 9% and 11% (р<0.05), respectively; the arterial and venous pressures were found to rise by 13.62% and 17.80% (р<0.05), respectively; the vasodilatation rates of the heart/ brain/ muscular vessels were tested to increase by 11-16% (р<0.05); and the skin capillaries were tested to contract by 16% (р<0.05). The short-term acclimatization was found to mobilize the adrenergic and hypophysial/ adrenal systems. Testosterone level was found to grow by 19% (р<0.01); and the tyrosine and tyrosine acid levels were tested to rise by 11% (р<0.05). The AST and ALT enzyme activity rates was tested to grow by 44.44% (р<0.01) and 189.74% (р<0.001), respectively. In the adaptation rising phase, the tests showed the polycythemia growing by 26.19% (р<0.05); haemoglobin level rising by 25% (р<0.01) and the hematocrit (packed cell volume, PCV) level increasing by 11% (р<0.05).
Furthermore, the study found the blood capacity increase, with the gas exchange surface tested to grow by 4-5%; and the oxygenation rate rising by 15% (р<0.05); the vessel permeability index was tested to drop by 12% (р<0.05). The adaptation processes going under aerobic conditions are associated with oxidative phosphorilation; reduction of blood flow in circles; the oxygenation rates and lung ventilation rates falling by 7%; the respiratory ratio of short-term versus long-term responses sagging by 11.85% (р<0.01); and the effective volume of O2 decreasing by 12% (р<0.01). The tissue oxygen extraction index was found to grow by 33.30% (р<0.01).
The maximum oxygen consumption (MOC) indices were found to positively correlate with the active muscular mass rates (r=0.66; r=0.61, р<0.001); fat mass rates (r=0.62, р<0.001); heart work and free fat acid rates (r=0.64, р<0.001); and the tissue oxygen extraction index and active body mass rates (r=0.66, р<0.001); furthermore, the maximum oxygen demand (MOD) indices were tested to correlate with the high-density lipoprotein level (r=0.59, р<0.001); urea level (r=0.59, р<0.001); and the total bilirubin and muscular creatine kinase levels (r=0.62, р<0.001).
The proposed training technologies helped identify the efficient adaptation elements, including the reactivity rates, adaptation phase sequences, blood flow redistribution variations depending on the rheo-wave oscillation amplitudes in the vascular system, with the growing role of the “peripheral hearts”. The athletes highly tolerable to the hypoxic impacts were found to develop dominating lipid-based energy supply mechanisms, with the haemostasis being determined by the degree of synchronization and integration of different elements of exchange processes. Long-term mid-amplitude adaptation cycles (taking 30 plus days) were found to form generalized specific processes in the athletes and new types of responses to the aggregate environmental influences.
The study was performed with support from the Ministry of Education and Science of the RF pursuant to the principal part of the State Order, Project Code 1696.
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Analysis of domestic and foreign literature has revealed advanced technologies of environmental effects and a development forecast for running athletics disciplines (Yu.V. Verhoshanskiy, E.B. Myakinchenko, V.N. Seluyanov, F. Wilt, A.N. Makarov, S.M. Detkovskiy, L.G. Sanadze, V.P. Filin, Yu.G. Travin, O.V. Tipa, A. Lydiard, P. Coe, E. Oliveira). However, Russian athletes have not made a breakthrough on the world arena (sprint, steeplechase, middle-, long- distance running and marathon) yet. Within the framework of the issue under discussion some urgent and essential aspects of athletic training have been highlighted such as monitoring of athletic performance, development of advanced training and rehabilitation technologies, allocating informative indicators of successful performance, adaptation to stress in the athletic training conditions.