Associate Professor, Dr.Biol. V.N. Pushkina1
Associate Professor, PhD A.V. Kornev1
Senior lecturer N.V. Olyashev2
Associate Professor, PhD A.V. Kochnev2
1Russian State Social University, Moscow
2Northern (Arctic) Federal University n.a. M.V. Lomonosov, Arkhangelsk
Keywords: differentiated physical education, workload, bodybuilding.
Modern education process at national higher educational establishments is known to expose students to high psychological stresses that may be detrimental for their health [5, 6, 7]. It is also a matter of common knowledge that an individual way to a healthy lifestyle and good health in general will start from the fundamental physical education values being accepted as a basis for conscious individual physical self-improvement process. When establishing facilitating conditions to improve the educational process efficiency in the academic Physical Education curriculum, due emphasis will be made on the young people’s needs and motivations . There are a few theoretic and practical study reports that address the matters of modern education and training system improvement within the Physical Education curriculum with due consideration for the individual body characteristics of the trainees [1, 2, 3]. Of special interest for the researchers have lately been the problems of the physical education process differentiation to tailor it to the constitution-specific abilities and resources of the trainees, including the differentiation methods based on haemodynamic markers .
Objective of the study was to assess efficiency of the university bodybuilding-based physical education process differentiated by the haemodynamic types of the trainees.
Methods and structure of the study. Subject to the study were university students of 18.02±0.18 years of age split up into the following three groups based on the specific minute blood volume (SMBV) rates: Group 1 of the students (n=149) tested with hyperkinetic (SMBV>110%) blood circulation type (HrBCT); Group 2 composed of the students (n=115) tested with eukinetic (SMBV= 90-110%) blood circulation type (EuBCT); and Group 3 composed of the students (n=48) tested with hypokinetic (SMBV<90%) blood circulation type (HpBCT) . The subjects were tested to obtain the following functionality rates of the following body systems: external respiration system functionality tested by SPIRO C-100 Spirometer Unit; cardiovascular system functionality tested by UPFT-1/30 Psychophysiologist Test System; motor skills and qualities (including speed-and-strength qualities, overall endurance, speed qualities, coordination, strength endurance of the upper limb muscles, and flexibility indices obtained by F.L. Dolenko method); physical working capacity based on the pulse debt accumulation intensity (PDAI) rates; psycho-emotional condition rated using the WAM (Wellbeing-Activity-Mood) tests; and the anxiety rates obtained by the Spielberger-Hanin State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) tests. The tests were performed at the start of the first semester in September and by the end of the second semester in May. The study data were processed by SPSS 13.0 statistical application software toolkit. The study data were found compliant to the normal distribution law as per the Kolmogorov-Smirnov criterion and, therefore, mean arithmetic value (M) and error of standard deviation (m) were used to present the data. Correlation analysis was made using the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients, and factor analysis was performed with varimax rotation. Differences were rated as statistically significant at p<0.05.
Study results and discussion. Analysis of the functional capabilities and intra-system correlations in the cardiovascular system of the HrBCT (Group 1) students demonstrated their cardiovascular system having a high potential with expressed sympathetic activity in the heart rate control; and the significant adaptive capabilities of the respiratory system; the qualities being considered favourable for the speed-intensive muscular loads. The EuBCT (Group 2) students were tested with the high functional capabilities of the cardiovascular system; with the parasympathetic activity dominating in the heart rate control; with the sympathetic centres being periodically activated to support the heart rate control process; and with the high airway conductance at every level of the airway tree from the smallest to the largest bronchial tubes; with these qualities assumed as favourable for the speed-and-strength-intensive muscular loads. The HpBCT (Group 3) students were tested with high adaptive reserves of the external respiratory system; with the cardiovascular system activity being expressly economized; with the parasympathetic activity dominating in the heart rate control; and with the high cardio-respiratory synchronizing rates; the qualities being assumed as favourable for the endurance-intensive muscular loads .
The motor resource rating study confirmed the above findings – as the HrBCT (Group 1) students were the first in the 100 m sprints and shuttle runs; the EuBCT (Group 2) students were leading in the pull-ups, press-ups and standing jumps; and the HpBCT (Group 3) students were the best in the 3000 m races and the flexibility tests. The test findings were used for the physical education curricula differentiation based on the constitutional predispositions of each of the haemodynamic types for physical loads of varied volumes and intensities, with an emphasis on the “leading” motor quality development practices. The bodybuilding-based exercises were varied for each of three Groups as follows:
Hiperkinetic type: 6-8 plus repeats; weight up to 85% of the maximum; 10-12 exercises; 320-460 weight lifts per training session; heart rate up to 170-180 bpm; and the rest time in between the attempts up to 3 minutes;
Eukinetic type: 8-10 plus repeats; weight up to 75% of the maximum; 12-14 exercises; 420-580 weight lifts per training session; heart rate up to 165-175 bpm; and the rest time in between the attempts up to 2 minutes;
Hypokinetic type: 10-12 plus repeats; weight up to 65% of the maximum; 14-16 exercises; 720-980 weight lifts per training session; heart rate up to 160-170 bpm; and the rest time in between the attempts up to 1 minute.
Health, functionality and motor ability rating analyses as of the start of the first semester versus that of the end of the second semester showed the proposed training methodology being highly efficient. The analysis demonstrated the numbers of the students rated with the “poor” health group being on the fall and the number of the students rated with the “below average”, “average” and “above average” health groups being on the rise. Specifically, by the end of the academic year, 45%, 48% and 35% of the young men of Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively, were rated with the “average” health group; and 5%, 7% and 13% of the young men were rated with the “above average” health group, respectively; whilst at the start of the academic year only 7% to 13% of the subject students were rated with the “average” health group. Furthermore, the students were found to improve their strength test rates irrespective of what motor quality was emphasized as the “leading” one in the health-improvement training process. The HrBCT (Group 1) students engaged in the bodybuilding practices with an emphasis on the speed development were tested with the strength growth by 5-7%; the EuBCT (Group 2) students engaged in the bodybuilding practices with an emphasis on the speed-and-strength development were tested with the strength rise by 7-9%; and the HpBCT (Group 3) students engaged in the bodybuilding practices with an emphasis on the endurance development were tested with the strength rise by 7-15%.
The comparative analysis of the study data showed the motor resource of the tested young men being on the rise over the academic year. The HrBCT (Group 1) students, for instance, showed the highest growth of the test results in the 100 m sprint and shuttle runs; the EuBCT (Group 2) students showed the maximum growth of the test results in press-ups, pull-ups, standing jumps and flexibility tests; and the HpBCT (Group 3) students were leading in the overall endurance tests. Our analysis of the workload test based on the pulse debt accumulation indices showed the physical working capacity rates being on the rise by the spring semester. Specifically, the physical working capacity rates of the Group 1, 2 and 3 students were found to grow for the academic year by 5% (р=0.05), 11% (р=0.03) and 7% (р=0.04), respectively. Furthermore, the WAM tests of the subject young men, irrespective of their haemodynamic types, showed “good” feel, “high” activity and “good” mood rates by the end of the academic year under study.
The haemodynamic-type-differentiated physical education method using the bodybuilding practices with an emphasis on the “leading” motor quality development training was found to improve the psycho-emotional state of the trainees, increase their functional and motor resource and improve their health and physical working capacity rates. The individualized training system based on the trainees’ constitution-specific motor predispositions and haemodynamic-type-conditioned inclinations to physical loads of variable volumes and intensity levels were found to help improve the education and training process efficiency in the academic Physical Education curriculum and increase the students’ motivations for the physical education practices.
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In theory and practice of university physical education the issues of improving the training sessions on the discipline "Physical Education" by taking into account the individual characteristics of the body have been covered in a number of researches. At the same time, it is of particular interest to study the problem of differentiation of physical education by abilities and capabilities depending on somatotypes, including hemodynamic "markers" of the body.
In order to evaluate the efficiency of university physical education differentiated by the type of hemodynamics with the use of body-building techniques the researchers studied the functional state of the respiratory system and cardiovascular system; estimated the level of health, motor fitness and physical performance and examined psychoemotional state and level of anxiety. All studies were conducted at the beginning of the first (September) and at the end of the second (May) semesters.
It has been established that boys with hyperkinetic circulation possess motor abilities to perform high-speed work, with eukinetic - speed-strength, with hypokinetic - to perform endurance exercises. The haemodynamic-type-differentiated physical education method using the bodybuilding practices with an emphasis on the “leading” motor quality development training was found to improve the psycho-emotional state of the trainees, increase their functional and motor resource and improve their health and physical working capacity rates. The individualized training system based on the trainees’ constitution-specific motor predispositions and haemodynamic-type-conditioned inclinations to physical loads of variable volumes and intensity levels were found to help improve the education and training process efficiency in the academic Physical Education curriculum and increase the students’ motivations for the physical education practices.
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