Monitoring of efficiency of development of physical culture and sport in federal subjects of Russia

Фотографии: 

Professor, Dr.Hab. V.Yu. Karpov1
Associate Professor, PhD V.A. Kudinova2
Professor, Dr.Hab. A.I. Seselkin1
Associate Professor, PhD E.D. Bakulina1

1Russian State Social University, Moscow
2Volgograd Agricultural University, Volgograd

Keywords: criteria, indicators, electronic format.

Introduction. In the last decade there was a significant increase of quantitative indicators of development of physical culture and sport (the number of people engaged in physical culture and sport activities, the number of sport personnel and facilities, the funding of the physical culture and sport sector) in the Russian Federation [1, 7]. On the other hand, we observed a reduction of the quality indicators (efficiency of sport activity; efficiency of use of human, material and financial resources; sport reserve training efficiency) [4, 8].

The main causes of the dynamic differences between these important indicators of development of physical culture and sports in the subjects of the Federation are: the lack of clear goal [5, 6]; the focus on average domestic indicators while addressing managerial issues; ambiguity while determining the place and role of qualitative characteristics of this process; a notable discrepancy in the level of development between the territories; intermittent multidirectional dynamics of many characteristics of development [1, 2, 3] and poor coverage of the studied issues on the background of great complexity and diversity of the subject of research [3].

Owing to lacking generally accepted goal one can see the process of monitoring of the indicators of development of physical culture and sport as a holistic educational system. It deprives the system of its main mechanism of effective operation and creates serious difficulties for its implementation [5, 6]. The violation of the hierarchy of backbone components and blurred goals and boundaries of researches led to poorly set objectives and irrational design and implementation of the algorithm of operations and actions within the studied process of development of physical culture and sport in the subjects of the Federation.

It becomes apparent that the research paradigm of traditional uninformative system of federal monitoring of the indicators of development of physical culture and sport (the forms No. 1-FK and No. 5-FK) should be changed.

Objective of the study was to substantiate the criteria of efficiency of development of physical culture and sport in the subjects of the Russian Federation.

Methods and structure of the study. We have conducted a year-long comparative analysis of indicators of development of physical culture and sport in the subjects of the Russian Federation on the basis of our key quality indicator of sport activity – "equivalent of sport skills", which characterizes the number of skilled athletes of mass categories, the number of Candidates for Master of Sport, the number of Masters of Sport of Russia and Masters of Sport of International Class. For the athletes this indicator reflects the effectiveness of sport activities, for sport personnel - it shows the effectiveness of their activities, for sport facilities - it represents the effectiveness of their use as simultaneous visitor capacity. Unfortunately, the official statistical reports (the forms No. 1-FK and No. 5-FK) do not take into account the indicators of effectiveness of development of physical culture and sport. 

Results and discussion. It is necessary to revise the monitoring responsibilities of different members in vertical hierarchy of information transfer (analytical and evaluative, correcting and prognostic activities should be delegated to the subjects of the Russian Federation; and regulatory, information, stimulating and motivational, research and methodological activities should be entrusted to federal authorities). It is also important to introduce a new section in statistical reports (the forms No. 1-FK and No. 5-FK) – the efficiency of development of physical culture and sport.

The regions should accumulate analytical and evaluative indicators and direct them to the federal centre with recommendations on elimination of errors and deficiencies. Federal authorities, in turn, are supposed to verify these data, verify calculations and recommendations, identify the problem on the basis of objective information, identify trends of the studied parameters, make and evaluate managerial decisions and send them to a particular region for implementation taking into account the dynamics of development of other subjects of the Russian Federation.

The delegation of monitoring authorities will enable each subject of the Russian Federation: to focus on the effectiveness of development of physical culture and sports; to organize the work of the region and municipal entities; to detect and prevent negative phenomena, including those related to the purpose, content, methods, means and results of development of physical culture and sport in the region.

We have developed an electronic rating system of indicators of efficiency of development of physical culture and sport in the subjects of the Russian Federation. Based on the results each subject of the Russian Federation was assigned a rating for various areas of activity. Here are some of these materials for the period 2002-2014: the indicators of effectiveness of physical activity – Republic of Bashkortostan (5.72 conventional units, 2002), the Republic of North Ossetia (4.91 units, 2008), the Republic of Dagestan (4.12 units, 2011), the Republic of Ingushetia (2.67 units, 2014); the effectiveness of health promotion activity – the Republic of Mari El (77.7 points, 2011), Chuvash Republic (73.4 points, 2014); the effectiveness of mass sport development of the Republic of Mari El (26.9 units, 2011 and 23.5 units, 2014); the effectiveness of sport facilities – Moscow (26.16 units, 2008), the Chechen Republic (26.65 units, 2011), the Republic of Ingushetia (18.5 units, 2014); performance of sport personnel – Kaluga region (412.9 units, 2008), Republic of Mari El (399.2 units, 2011 and 372.1 units, 2014). According to our research, competent personnel is of greater importance (compared with the development of the sport infrastructure) for the improvement of sport activity in subjects of the Russian Federation.

 We identified significant differences in financial costs per one "equivalent of sport skills" (the efficiency of funding) between the subjects of the Russian Federation: Chukotka Autonomous Okrug – 40 450.2 roubles, Republic of Tatarstan – 25 198.8 rubles, the Republic of Kalmykia – 265.1 rubles (2011); Nenets Autonomous Okrug – 75 to 130.5 rubles, Belgorod region – 1 616.5 rubles, the Altai Republic - 997.3 rubles. In our opinion, only the optimal amount in the range of 4-4.5 thousand rubles per one "equivalent of sport skills" is educationally and economically justified.

The values of many indicators change spontaneously, in opposite directions, that shows the lack of governing regulations and properly set goals in the studied process.

We have defined the levels (high, above average, average, below average, low) of evaluative indicators of efficiency of development of the physical culture and sport sector in the subjects of the Russian Federation (Table 1). These materials make it possible to rank the results for different regions and determine the leading and lagging characteristics.

Table 1. Levels of evaluative indicators of  efficiency of development of the physical culture and sport sector in the subjects of the Russian Federation.                                                                                                                        

 

Levels of development

Main characteristics

Physical education and sport, c.u.

Health-promotion, points

 

Sport personnel, c.u.

Sport facilities, c.u.

High

5,84

85,0

380,5

26,5

Above average

4,43

72,0

305,8

19,7

Average

3,22

60,0

215,3

           12,4

Below average

1,95

40,0

            125,2

   5,3

Low

1,04

20,0

 55,1

   2,2

 

In the period from 2002 to 2014 there was a noticeable increase in the variability of the indicators of efficiency of development of the main characteristics related to physical culture and sport: physical education and sport (from 29.8% to 48.8%); health-promotion (from 18.4% to 27.2%); sport personnel (from 41.5% to 79.6%); logistics (from 45.2% to 87.7%); funding (from 96.8% to 160.7%). In order to improve the efficiency of development of the physical culture and sport sector it is necessary to significantly reduce the coefficients of variation of considered characteristics: health-improvement - 4-5%;  sport activity - 4-7%; sport personnel - 11-13%; funding  - 9-11%. The focus of managerial efforts shifted to this will substantially change the content and structure of development of the physical culture and sport sector in the subjects of the Russian Federation and make the process more efficient.

Conclusion. The proposed model of monitoring of efficiency of development of physical culture and sport will make it possible: to provide conditions for the implementation of new solutions to related problems; to build a new logic of research procedures by transferring monitoring responsibilities from federal to regional level; will allow to design the appropriate goals of the development of physical culture and sport in the subjects of the Russian Federation; create a hierarchy of considered criteria, characteristics and parameters of efficiency.

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