Inclusive tourism development prospects in Russia

Фотографии: 

Professor, Dr.Hab. A.I. Seselkin
Professor, Dr.Biol. V.N. Pushkina
Associate Professor, PhD M.A. Petrova
Associate Professor, PhD M.V. Eremin
Russian State Social University, Moscow

 

Keywords: inclusive tourism, development, education, social rehabilitation.

Introduction. Among the crucial tasks of the Russian Federation, which is a welfare state, according to the Constitution, is to solve the fundamental problem of people with impairments, which consists in the presence of the barriers of limited connection with the world, restricted mobility, limited communication with other people, nature, difficulty of access to cultural values and education.

This problem can be solved through social adaptation of people with impairments and their social rehabilitation that, in turn, requires physical rehabilitation by means of adaptive physical education and inclusive tourism.

Objective of the research was to analyze the prospects of development of inclusive tourism in the context of physical and social rehabilitation of people with impairments and to identify the ways to address the identified problems.

Results and discussion. In recent years, in the Russian Federation there have been successfully implemented some important state social programs aimed at familiarizing wide sections of population with active and healthy lifestyle: the "Physical Education and Sport Development Strategy in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020" [5], the "Tourism Development Strategy in the Russian Federation for the period till 2020" [6] and the State program "Accessible Environment" [1]. In order to fulfil the strategic tasks of development of domestic tourism the Federal Target Program "Development of domestic and inbound tourism in the Russian Federation (2011 - 2018)" [4] was accepted, which is supposed to significantly expand the material base of tourism by creating tourist and recreational clusters in the regions of Russia on public-private partnership. However, the analysis shows that this program does not include the indicators of environment accessibility for people with impairments, provided in the global criteria of sustainable development of the World Tourism Oganization (UNWTO) for tourist destinations [7].

The objectives of the State program "Accessible Environment" include not only the improvement of accessibility of priority facilities and services in the spheres of life important for people with impairments and low mobility population groups, but also elimination of social isolation of people with impairments and ensuring equal access to rehabilitation services. Unfortunately, the information on specific results achieved in the process of implementation of planned activities of the program is either hard to access or does not exist.

At the same time, the tasks specified in the above-mentioned documents can be fulfilled through inclusive tourism as it is "tourism accessible for all" and it covers almost all types of social and physical rehabilitation of people with impairments. Analysis of specialized materials on the use of tourism for the purposes of socialization of people with health impairments allowed to generalize the expected results of the combination of the means of adaptive physical education and inclusive tourism (Table 1):

Table 1. The model of social and physical rehabilitation of people with impairments by means of inclusive tourism and adaptive physical education

Type of rehabilitation

Rehabilitation impact

Acting factors of adaptive physical education and inclusive tourism

 

Physical rehabilitation

Health-improvement

Motor activity and health-improving technologies of adaptive physical education

Psycho-emotional impact

Aesthetic impact of natural and cultural environment, travel (hiking) experience

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Social rehabilitation

Socio-communicative rehabilitation

Changes in person's character, change of the circle of contacts, small group activities, social role changes

Social rehabilitation related to living conditions

Activities geared to develop self-sufficiency, personal care and adaptation to travel (hiking) conditions

Socio-environmental rehabilitation

Learning the ways of efficient performance in different environments

Socio-pedagogical rehabilitation

Learning new knowledge and skills

Socio-cultural rehabilitation

Excursions, contests, exhibitions, songs, conversations, etc.

Socio-psychological rehabilitation

Social activation during tourist activities, self-awareness, observation of successes of other people with impairments, worldview transformation

Modern studies of disability and tourism accessibility [10] prove that psychosomatic (physiological) state of a person with impairments does not exclude the possibility to engage in tourism. The service should only be adapted for the special needs of such a tourist considering his capabilities and abilities. The adaptive physical education is recognized to be an important component of formation of motor activity during tourist activities, but it requires a comprehensive study of the features and principles of work with this category of population. The successful examples of such researches at the regional level are: the programs of development of adaptive sports [2] and the innovative theoretical and methodological substantiation of chess as a suitable but peculiar kind of sport and adaptive physical education (APE) [3].  

It seems appropriate and promising to diversify the content of training within Master's course in the field of adaptive physical education via the development and introduction of the Master's programme "Physical rehabilitation and sport in recreation and tourism" [9]. The purpose of this programme is to give the students professional competences in the field of adaptive physical education, recreation and tourism. The content of the programme can become the basis for the courses of professional retraining and advanced training on inclusive tourism for social workers, coaches and trainers in the sphere of adaptive physical education and sports, as well as managers, technologists and the staff of mass contact occupations in tourism industry. Russian State Social University started the work in this field in cooperation with the Ministry of Sport of the Russian Federation within the framework of the State program "Accessible Environment".

Conclusion. Adaptive physical education, sport, recreation and tourism are becoming increasingly important as essential and effective means of prolonged impact in the process of implementation of adaptation and rehabilitation technologies.

State programs in the field of physical education, sport, tourism and formation of accessible environment for people with impairments, that were developed and accepted at the federal level, create necessary conditions and prospects for the sustained development of inclusive tourism in the subjects of the Russian Federation.

It is necessary to ensure closer inter-agency coordination at the federal and regional levels, and create an algorithm of development and implementation of the inclusive tourism development strategy in the region, taking into account the requirements for a comprehensive program of social and physical rehabilitation of people with health impairments from different nosological groups.

A significant step in this direction at the federal level is the ongoing discussion in the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation on the creation of a full-fledged system of recreation for people with physical impairments based on the results of the All-Russian forum "Russia without barriers" held on 5-6 November 2015 in Sochi on the initiative of the Federal Tourism Agency [8].

In order to address mentioned problems the specialists of APE should be able to not only carry out scientific research and teach in the field of inclusive tourism, but also develop and implement comprehensive programs of social adaptation and physical rehabilitation of people with impairments in the regions and municipalities of the Russian Federation.

It is advisable to include tourism in the Federal state educational standard of higher education for the course 49.04.02 - "Physical education for persons with impairments (Adaptive Physical Education)", in the area of professional activity of graduates who have mastered the graduate program, similar to the current Federal state educational standard of higher education for the course 49.04.01 - "Physical Education".

Abstract
The prospects of development of inclusive tourism in the Russian Federation in the context of physical and social rehabilitation of people with impairments were considered in the paper. Available government policies and programs in the field of physical education, sport and tourism, that have been developed and adopted at the federal level; created accessible environment for people with impairments create the necessary conditions and prospects for the sustained development of inclusive tourism in the subjects of the Russian Federation. It is necessary to ensure closer inter-agency coordination at the federal and regional levels, and create an algorithm of development and implementation of the inclusive tourism development strategy in the region, taking into account the requirements for a comprehensive program of social and physical rehabilitation of persons with health impairments from different nosological groups.
It becomes relevant to train highly skilled personnel who could not only carry out scientific research and teach in the field of inclusive tourism, but also develop and implement comprehensive programs of social adaptation and physical rehabilitation of people with health impairments in the regions and municipalities of the Russian Federation. It is advisable to include tourism in the Federal state educational standard of higher education for the course 49.04.02 - "Physical education for persons with impairments (Adaptive Physical Education)", in the area of professional activity of graduates who have mastered the graduate program, similar to the current Federal state educational standard of higher education for the course 49.04.01 - "Physical Education".

References

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