Dr.Hab. A.S. Makhov
Professor, Dr.Hab. V.D. Chepik
Professor, Dr.Hab. V.Yu. Karpov
Professor, Dr.Biol. V.N. Pushkina
Russian State Social University, Moscow
Objective of the study was to design “Selected Sport Theory and Practice” academic discipline for the regular Physical Education curriculum (Bachelor level) to help step up the trainers’ training and skills improvement process quality and thereby contribute to the competitiveness of the relevant specialists in their professional careers. Modern scientific knowledge base on the institutional aspects of the sport reserve training system; and the study data on specific aspects of high- and mid-ranking athletes’ long-term training systems – have significantly expanded our knowledge of the adaptation mechanisms activated by training workloads and helped develop contents of the relevant selected sport training curricula. It should be noted, however, that the professional trainers’ training curricula designs and contents need to be updated and improved on a permanent basis with due input from the relevant modern research developments and with initiatives to ensure the practical requirements and guidelines for the children’s and adolescents’ sport organizations being duly harmonized.
When developing the present modular education system for the Selected Sport Theory and Practice academic discipline, we applied a broad set of the available theoretical and empirical study methods, plus a few options of complex analyses of the relevant formal standards, requirements and other regulatory provisions for the professional trainers’ performance and competence assessment process and the relevant assessment criteria. The study and analytical data gave us the means to classify contents of the advanced sport specialist training education systems and put together a few base modules of the Selected Sport Theory and Practice academic discipline.
Keywords: base modules, trainers’ training system, selected education curriculum content, vocational sport training quality.
Background. Proactive development of highly-skilled trainers’ training systems for the children’s and adolescents’ sports and elite sports is only possible when the relevant selected education curricula are updated on a permanent basis and the relevant modern scientific developments in the sport training theory and practice are duly applied in the curricula. The Selected Sport Theory and Practice academic discipline is being designed today as a special education system branch to integrate elements of the relevant psychological, educational, medical and biological knowledge base in the trainers’ training system for the national physical education and sport sector, to secure high standards of the sport-specific trainers’ training systems [1, 2].
Objective of the study was to design the Selected Sport Theory and Practice academic discipline basics for the regular Physical Education curriculum (Bachelor level).
Methods and structure of the study.
When developing the present modular education system for the Selected Sport Theory and Practice academic discipline, we applied complex analyses of the relevant formal standards, requirements and other regulatory provisions for the professional trainers’ performance/ competence assessment process and the relevant assessment criteria, including the following:
ü List of the specialist’ general cultural and professional competences as provided by the Federal State Educational Standard (FSES) for Physical Education curriculum #49.03.01 ;
ü Trainer’s professional performance assessment criteria as provided by the Staff Assessment Procedures set forth by the Ministry of Sports of Russia Letter ВМ-04-10/6609 of 14.10.2015 ; and
ü Study reports and other available special training literature on the matters of the Selected Sport Theory and Practice academic discipline (covering cyclic sports, strength- and speed-intensive sports, and martial arts) ;
Quality metrics of the base module designs and contents for the Selected Sport Theory and Practice academic discipline was obtained through special sampling analyses of the selected training sections; contents of the vocational sport activity; and the available study reports on selected athletic training systems in selected sport disciplines using a latent semantic analysis to explore meanings of the key terms and descriptions of the reference materials .
Study results and discussion
The study data and analyses provided us with the means to design base modules of the Fundamentals block in the Selected Sport Theory and Practice academic discipline (see Table 1 hereunder).
Table 1. Base modules of the Fundamentals block in the Vocational Sport Theory and Practice academic discipline
Module 1: Athletic training process management system in the Selected Sports:
- History, development trends, role and importance of the VS in the national physical education system;
- VS training process management bodies;
- VS in the children’s and youth sport system units; physical education and sport organization designs and operations;
- Federal State Educational Standard (FSES) applicable to the VS system; and
- VS study design and methods.
Module 3: General and special physical training systems in VS:
- Key training process efficiency factors of importance for the VS; physical quality development; complex coordinated motor skill mastering/ excelling practices and their physiological, psychological and biomechanical aspects;
- Training/ competitive process control methods and regimes; physical education models for the VS; pre-competitive training process specifics; individual/ team competitive process control models.
Module 2: Institutional basics for the education/ training/ competitive process in the VS:
- Long-term athletic training system;
- Athletic training system stages and stage goals;
- Selection and vocational orientation in the VS system;
- Athletic excellence factors in the VS;
- Athletic training system parameters and planning options;
- Training process design;
- Informational support for the VS;
- VS promotion process formats; and
- Athletic training process design in the adaptive sport system: background data.
Module 4: Motor skills mastering process and competitive tactics in the VS; trainer’s educational excellence in the VS system:
- Physical practice mastering course; motor skills classification and excelling system in the VS;
- Options of the competitive techniques and tactics in the VS: classification and improvement procedures;
- Statutes of competitions; competitive and refereeing rules in the VS system;
- Trainer’s educational activity in the VS system; educational mastery and education technologies in the VS system.
Content of the Selected Sport Theory and Practice academic discipline was designed to give an integrated (systemic) knowledge of the medical/ biological fundamentals and psychical regularities of the bodily adaptations to specific sports; to help the trainees master, based on this knowledge, the relevant skills and techniques to be able to excel the athletic mastery and prudently manage the training/ competitive workloads over the annual/ long-term training cycles in the selected sports. Given in Table 2 hereunder are the designs and contents of the Special Methodologies block in the Selected Sport Theory and Practice academic discipline.
Table 2. Base modules of the Special Methodologies block in the Selected Sport Theory and Practice academic discipline
Module 5: Motor activity of trainees in the VS, with an emphasis on the musculoskeletal system, key physiological functions; requirements and other specifics:
- Impacts of the VS practices on the morphological/ functional characteristics of the trainees;
- Trainees’ morphological models and fitness levels in the VS system;
- Morphological study data recording and analysing procedures in different stages of the athletic training process; and
- Athlete’s condition correction technologies applicable in different stages of the athletic training process.
Module 7: Psychological and educational provisions for the athletic education/ training/ competitive process in the VS system:
- Trainee’s motivation and interest shaping methods in the VS system;
- Autogenic training; psychological education tools and methods applied in the athletic workability rehabilitation process;
- Psychological control; individual mental condition rating and special control tests;
- Athletic fitness integrated control and integrated rating procedure and its contents; and
- Communication ethics in the training/ competitive processes.
Module 6: Psycho-physiological and biochemical indicators of intense muscular activity in the VS system:
- Mental/ neuro-dynamical/ energy/ motor components of trainees in the VS system;
- Energy regimes of an athlete’s body, with an emphasis on the aerobic/ anaerobic performance ratings;
- Model psycho-physiological criteria of an athlete’s motor performance in the VS; and
- Trainee’s fitness special control tests.
Module 8: Medical/ education control; and material/ technical provisions for the VS system:
- Medical support (MS) and medical/ educational control (EC) in the VS (MS, EC and TP [technical] provisions);
- Medical and pharmacological support of the education/ training/ competitive process;
- Safety/ injury prevention standards in the VS system;
- Doping control system design in the VS; and
- Material/ technical provisioning system in the VS: infrastructure; equipment; accessories; and outfits
The education process sections relating to the education process methodologies and sport education mastery formation process in the selected sport discipline are duly covered by the contents (including the labour intensity charts) of the valid educational curricula as provided by the relevant Federal State Educational Standard (FSES) for Physical Education discipline.
The study data and analyses gave us the means to:
- Develop a few blocks (sections) of the Selected Sport Theory and Practice academic discipline for the Bachelor-level Physical Education curriculum and for the skills-upgrade curricula of the Further Professional Education Department of the Russian State Social University – applicable for training the trainers, methodology instructors and the relevant Physical Education specialists;
- Spell out the discipline contents updated to include the modern innovations to support professional activity of the physical cultural and sport specialists based on the following: broad-based inter-disciplinary connections of sport education and sport psychology disciplines; information technologies applied in sports; biomechanics metering and video-analysing systems applied in sports; systematized data on the medical/ biological support systems applicable in the athletic training process; doping control systems; and the modern developments in the athletic workability rehabilitation domain;
- Put together the guiding documentation and technologies for the education/ training/ competitive components in different stages of the athletic training process; and
- Draft an Education Methodology System for the Selected Sport Theory and Practice academic discipline with the relevant materials for the vocational sports.
- Karpov V.Yu. Formirovanie kompetentnosti spetsialista na osnove innovatsionnykh podhodov k prepodavaniyu uchebnoy distsipliny «Teoriya i metodika fizicheskoy kul'tury» (Professional competency formation using innovative approaches to teaching the discipline "Theory and methods of physical culture") / V.Yu. Karpov, N.M. Lapina, E.D. Bakulina // Uch. zapiski un-ta im. P.F. Lesgafta». – 2015. – № 11 (129) – P. 121-126.
- Makhov A.S. Printsipy upravleniya razvitiem adaptivnogo sporta v Rossii (Management principles of adaptive sport development in Russia) / A.S. Makhov // Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. – 2013. – № 7. – P. 34-37.
- Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po organizatsii sportivnoy podgotovki v Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Guidelines for organization of sports training in Russia) /Moscow: Sovetskiy sport. – 2014. – 132 p.
- O napravlenii Metodicheskikh rekomendatsiy po provedeniyu attestatsii trenerov, osushchestvlyayushchikh sportivnuyu podgotovku /pis'mo Minsporta Rossii ot 14.10.2015 g. # VM-04-10/6609 (On the direction of Guidelines for certification of coaches engaged in athletic training / Letter from the Ministry of Sports of the RF 10.14.2015, # VM-04-10 / 6609.
- Federal'ny gosudarstvenny obrazovatel'ny standart po napravleniyu podgotovki «Fizicheskaya kul'tura» # 49.03.01 / Prikaz Minobrnauki Rossii ot 07.08. 2014 g. # 935 (Federal State Educational Standard for «Physical education» № 49.03.01 / Order of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science 07.08. 2014 # 935).
- Fomin V.S. O metodologii issledovaniya sportivnoy deyatel'nosti (Sports activity research methodology) / V.S. Fomin, V.G. Petrukhin, V.D. Chepik // Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. – 1984. – № 8 – P. 47-51.
- Chepik V.D. Informatsionnye uslugi turfirm v populyarizatsii programm ozdorovitel'noy i kul'turno-prosvetitel'skoy napravlennosti (Information services of travel agencies for promotion of recreational and cultural and educational programs) / V.D. Chepik, T.V. Reysterman // Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. – 2014. – № 11 – P. 102-104.