Regulation of respiratory function of students with different physical activity levels

Фотографии: 

PhD R.A. Gaynullin1
Professor, Dr.Biol. A.P. Isaev2
Associate Professor, PhD V.V. Erlikh3
Postgraduate J.B. Korableva3
1Bashkir State University, Ufa
2Research Center of Sports Science, South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk
3Institute of Sport, Tourism and Service, South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk

Abstract

There is a debate in modern medical science about the appropriateness of the semantics of norm that has over 300 definitions. Practical (individual, gender) recommendations are provided for correcting condition and fitness level. Breathing function manifests itself differently in three health groups with their specific features. It is on a prioritized high level of functioning in the 1st group, on low and middle levels – in the 2nd group and on an extremely low level – in the 3rd health group. From this we can conclude that sustainment of students of the 3rd and 2nd health groups requires a large energy consumption. Their vitality is at the lower border of biological reliability, and life preservation depends on the redistribution of functions, changes in the regulatory processes of the integrative functioning of the body providing health and safety.

Keywords: external breathing function, analysis of variance, comparative inter- and intragroup values, diagrams of mean values, variability of values, reference limits, norm.

Introduction. Individuality, according to R. Williams (1960), is a deviation from the norm. Genetic polymorphism indicates ranges of variability within reference limits: “There is nothing more uncertain than normal human behavior” [1]. The amorphousness of the norm is seen in everyday practice. The approach from the point of view of the norm has proven to be ineffective.

Research method and organization. First-year students aged 17-19 were subject to studies. Examination of the external breathing function (EBF) was carried out using the “Eton” apparatus (Russia) [4].

Results and discussion. Research results are presented in Table 1 and Figure 1 (the comparison was conducted in three health groups).

Table 1. Analysis of variance of breathing function of students

Compared indicators

Sum of squares

st. conn.

Mean square

F

Value

Expiratory reserve volume

Inter-group

0.202

2

0.101

0.512

0.605

Intra-group

5.317

27

0.197

 

 

Total

5.519

29

 

 

 

Inspiratory capacity/l

Inter-group

0.228

2

0.114

0.165

0.849

Intra-group

18.683

27

0.692

 

 

Total

18.911

29

 

 

 

Expiratory forced vital capacity/l

Inter-group

2.892

2

1.446

2.095

0.143

Intra-group

18.635

27

0.690

 

 

Total

21.527

29

 

 

 

Cardiac output 25, l/s

Inter-group

4.684

2

2.342

0.800

0.459

Intra-group

78.987

27

2.925

 

 

Total

83.671

29

 

 

 

Cardiac output 50, l/s

Inter-group

2.804

2

1.402

1.777

0.188

Intra-group

21.300

27

0.789

 

 

Total

24.104

29

 

 

 

Cardiac output 75, l/s

Inter-group

0.534

2

0.267

0.382

0.686

Intra-group

18.865

27

0.699

 

 

Total

19.399

29

 

 

 

Tiffeneau index, %

Inter-group

309.415

2

154.708

1.955

0.161

Intra-group

2136.312

27

79.123

 

 

Total

2445.728

29

 

 

 

Gaensler index, %

Inter-group

71.975

2

35.988

0.844

0.441

Intra-group

1151.480

27

42.547

 

 

Total

1223.455

29

 

 

 

Peak expiratory flow rate/s

Inter-group

0.627

2

0.313

0.165

0.849

Intra-group

51.388

27

1.903

 

 

Total

52.014

29

 

 

 

Mean flow rate 0.2-1.2

Inter-group

1.684

2

0.842

0.453

0.640

Intra-group

50.166

27

1.858

 

 

Total

51.850

29

 

 

 

Mean flow rate 25-75

Inter-group

0.369

2

0.185

0.461

0.636

Intra-group

10.813

27

0.400

 

 

Total

11.182

29

 

 

 

Mean flow rate 75-85

Inter-group

13.593

2

6.796

11.018

0.000

Intra-group

16.654

27

0.617

 

 

Total

30.246

29

 

 

 

FEV/Inspiratory FVC

Inter-group

50.073

2

25.037

0.158

0.855

Intra-group

4289.724

27

158.879

 

 

Total

4339.797

29

 

 

 

Peak inspiratory flow rate

Inter-group

5.426

2

2.713

1.693

0.203

Intra-group

43.272

27

1.603

 

 

Total

48.698

29

 

 

 

Inspiratory cardiac output 50

Inter-group

0.515

2

0.258

0.251

0.780

Intra-group

27.709

27

1.026

 

 

Total

28.225

29

 

 

 

Maximum breathing capacity

Inter-group

1844.902

2

922.451

5.811

0.008

Intra-group

4285.800

27

158.733

 

 

Total

6130.703

29

 

 

 

Pulmonary ventilation when assessing the dynamic characteristics – volume, speed and time together form breathing patterns. Mechanics of pulmonary ventilation is thoroughly studied in modern physiology [3]. Breathing is determined by respiratory muscles, the volume of ventilated air, breathing resistance, overcoming by contractions of these muscles [1]. In assessing the breathing function they distinguish static volumes and capacity (total lung capacity, vital capacity, respiratory and reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, functional residual capacity). Ventilation, diffusion, perfusion and tissue respiration collectively include external and tissue breathing. Ergospirometry is one of the methods of breathing function assessment [5]. Physical exercise tolerance reflects the degree of adaptive capability of a student and the ability to overcome the proposed load.

Hereby is an example of distribution of the mean reserve breathing volume by groups (1-3). Twenty-two indicators of the breathing function were analyzed.

Figure 1. Diagrams of mean values

Variance correctly characterizes the scatter if the set has a normal distribution. Dispersions of δ2 set with F close to 1. The null hypothesis is rejected in such indicators as expiratory FVC, cardiac output 50, Tiffeneau index, mean flow rate 75-85, inspiratory peak flow rate, maximum breathing capacity.

Indicators of external breathing presented in the diagrams can be differentiated by input into the breathing patterns. Thus, the following indicators were high in the 1st group: expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, cardiac output 50, 75, Gaensler index, mean flow rate 0.2-1.2, mean flow rate 25, 75, mean time of peak flow rate, maximum breathing capacity, mean expiratory flow rate, ratio of cardiac output 50 to vital capacity, mean expiratory FVC, mean forced expiratory volume per second. Therefore, the breathing pattern included volume, speed and time characteristics in the 1st health group. Average and low indicators were observed in the 1st health group. Accordingly, high breathing indicators accounted for 57.14 %, while the moderate and low ones - for 42.86 %.

In the second group high values were detected in the following indicators: cardiac output 25, Tiffeneau index, peak expiratory flow rate, mean flow rate 75-85, FEV 0.5 seconds, temporary expiratory vital capacity, average time of transition, ratio of cardiac output 50 to forced vital capacity. In the second group high values accounted for 28.57 %, moderate and low – for 71.43 %. In the third group only 10.71% of subjects had high values, and 89.29% had them at moderate and low levels.

Conclusion.  The breathing function manifests itself differently in three health groups with their specific features. It is on a prioritized high level of functioning in the 1st group, on low and moderate levels – in the 2nd group and on an extremely low level – in the 3rd health group. From this we can conclude that sustainment of students of the 3rd and 2nd health groups requires a large energy consumption. Their vitality is at the lower border of biological reliability, and life preservation depends on the redistribution of functions, changes in the regulatory processes of the integrative functioning of the body providing health and safety.

The work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation within the framework of the basic part of the state task (project code – 1696). 

References

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