Psychological conditions of development competency of future trainers as organizers of innovative training strategy in volleyball

Honoured coach of Russia, Associate Professor V.Yu. Shneider
Ph.D., Associate Professor V.Yu. Losev
Surgut State University, KhMAR-Yugra, Surgut


Keywords: competency level, accelerated education method, active mentality phased formation concept.


It is a matter of common knowledge today that nothing can be done without due competency in the modern world, and only those people who are prepared to successfully apply the acquired knowledge in practice are competitive and efficient enough. As things now stand, the traditional volleyball coach education methodology is designed for the people having some coaching background and takes a long time, while the education process is dominated by the trial and error method in fact [2, 10]. Therefore, the sport community urgently needs a good accelerated education system applicable to unprepared trainees, with sound research substantiation for such system.

Objective of the study was to substantiate basic conditions for the competency-building mentality formation in the coach training process as a basis for innovative strategies in the volleyball training systems applicable to the university students of non-sport departments.

Methodology and structure of the study

We applied the key provisions of the N.A. Bernstein theory on the movement formation regularities; the personality developing education concepts offered by P.Y. Gal'perin, V.V. Davydov, V.Y. Liaudis et al.; and the major provisions of the physical education theory and practice by L.P. Matveev, Y.D. Zheleznyak et al., as a basis for the present study.

As was found in the relevant psychological studies that have been performed in our country for the last few decades (dominated by works of P.Y. Gal'perin, V.V. Davydov,  N.A. Talyzina et al.), education models designed with due consideration for the psychological regularities of the movement formation process have proved to be much more effective than the traditional education systems.

In the cases when the background knowledge base formed in the past through mostly memorizing education methods fails to be fully helpful for due guidance of the trainee in the vocational core activity, he or she needs a set of specific reference points highlighting the relevant Action Guiding Framework (AGF) in the education process. The AGF model may be based on some education and/or training maps that spell out the priorities and sequences of the required actions and sequences that – when the trainee performs them right – make the action execution phase easy and error-free.

The structure of the education process designed in compliance with the active mentality phased formation theory may be described as the following sequence: AGF design phase – followed by the action workout based on the AGF model – followed by the education process result that is the ability to operate within the required quality frame. The AGF-based system effectively excludes any performance error in the unfamiliar action sequence and, consequently, no time is wasted in the process on the ineffective skills/ practices formation efforts; whilst the traditional education systems are well known to waist most of the time for eradication or correction of such wrong skills and practices.

The proposed education method is designed as follows:

– The trainee reads the offered task having no idea of how to solve it in practice;

– Having read the task, he or she shall follow the Action Guiding Framework (AGF) points to perform the required action sequence; and

– The task is soon solved, provided that the trainee strictly performs the points spelled out by the AGF.

This active mentality formation model in application to the activities dominated by the physical- movements-based-operations is relatively easy for design for the reason that every reference point in the design performed by the master is readily exposed and visible.

In its final shape, the primary and most important part of this model is designed as a sequence of instructions that clearly spell out what, when and how should be done. The second (and no less important) part of the active mentality formation model for the mastered activity sequence offers the education/ practical tasks that model the target activity process.

Subject to the study were 31 students broken down into a reference group of 15 people and an study group of 16 people. The education process in the first stage was designed to shape up a set of tools to assess the students’ preparedness to work in the above-mentioned format; and at the second stage – to organize the training process of the study group students.

A set of pilot tasks was developed to test and shape up the quality assessment criteria to rate the performance success of the tasks solved by the students, and to test the proposed education toolkit.

The test tasks were offered in the form of video records that the students were required to analyze and highlight the most typical and frequent errors in the movement sequences. These errors were preliminary revealed and sorted out by the research team using a large sample, with the errors being classified and rated depending on their negative impacts on the subject movement accuracy [15].

The analysis included the following two blocks:

Block А: Assessing the typical errors in the game elements and structure.

Task 1: Please analyze the following video record.

Overhead pass performance technique.

The task gives a list of serious errors that must be detected in the video.

Quality rating criteria are based on the counts of detected errors and seriousness rates of the errors.

Every detected and correctly rated error is scored by 3 points. In case of incorrect rating of the detected error, points are discounted based on the difference between the expert’s rate of the error and the student’s rate.

Block B: Selecting the corrective tools for the movement sequence; and assessing the tool selection success rate of the student.

Task 2: Based on your analysis of the movement errors, please select the corrective tools for the overhead pass performance technique.

Quality rating criteria are based on the counts of right corrective tools selected by the students and the numbers and qualities of the practical corrective recommendations given by the students.

Later on in the education process, in order to form necessary conditions for the relevant mental patterns being formed by the students (as manifested by the growing competency levels), the educators will give the means to further master the coaching techniques through the course of methodological and practical lessons when the students alternatively play the roles of a coaching analyst and an errors-correcting coach.

Time of the session will be mostly devoted to the tasks setting necessary conditions for formation of the guiding framework for the target technique. The student playing the role of a coach receives the Action Guiding Framework (AGF) form and concise background information on how the transition from one AGF point to the other will be made. Depending on how successful is the student in the procedure mastering process, he or she will receive additional data on detailed AGF specifications for the specific points, with special emphasis on/ attention being made on some special tools in the task solving process.

Following the course of methodological and practical lessons, the students’ error-detecting and correcting knowledge and skills will be tested by the repeated tests to rate the individual progresses in the competency-building process.

Study results and discussion

Given in Table 1 hereunder please find the qualitative indicators of the error-detection and correction knowledge and skills of the future coaches.

Table 1. Error-detection and correction knowledge and skills of the future coaches, average values



Detection skills, score

Correction skills, score

Competency building rate









Reference group, n=15




























Study group, n=16




























Students of the reference group from the non-sport departments were subject to additional test of the accelerated education method. This innovation method was compared to the traditional integrated movement mastering method. Given in Table 2 hereunder please find the technical skills rating statistics of the study group versus the reference group first-year students, as achieved for 4 training sessions.

Table 2. Pass stability and accuracy rates of the trainees, average values






Pass stability (pass counts)

Study group, n=15




Reference group, n=17




Pass accuracy (counts of accurate passes)

Study group, n=15




Reference group, n=17




* – p < 0.01


It is the psychological analysis of the specific actions that is used as a basis for the accelerated education method. Perfect knowledge of the target actions gives the means to accurately spell out the Action Guiding Framework (AGF) for the trainee and thereby provide him/her with the foothold to precisely perform the required movement sequences in an error-free manner from the very start of education process. The accelerated education method we have developed has demonstrated the competency-building rate of the future trainers in the study group coming to 47.6% of the maximum possible level that is about 3 times higher than that of the reference group (16.7%). In the empirical aspect, the achieved competency levels are manifested in the following elements: comprehensive knowledge of the structure of every technical element of the volleyball game; correct detection of errors in the volleyball techniques and the ability to explain the reasons and consequences of every error; reasonable selection of the relevant errors-correction and education tools within the relevant AGF model, with the selected toolkit being well tailored for the objectives; right choice of the education actions designed in a staged manner to address specific motor sequences and tasks in the integrated process technology, with the transition to the next stage being made after the previous task is successfully solved; and good correspondence of the interim focuses and workloads of the training practices to the major objectives of the education process.


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