PhD S.A. Pronin
St. Petersburg National State University of Physical Education, Sports and Health named after P. F. Lesgaft, St. Petersburg
Keywords: periodization, "Teoriya i Praktika Fizicheskoy Kultury" journal, organization of sport science.
Introduction. Theoretically, solution of the problem of periodization is similar to classification. In fact, it is similar to distinguishing similar and discontiguous groups in the observed time period that form homogeneous periods . With this in mind, in this case, the problem was actually reduced to finding homogeneity between previously listed 10 stages in the evolution of the "Teoriya i Praktika Fizicheskoy Kultury" journal (see the papers in the "TiPFK" journal № 1-10 for 2015): 1) 1925-1933; 2) 1937-1941; 3) 1945-1951; 4) 1952-1961; 5) 1962-1968; 6) 1969-1980; 7) 1981-1988; 8) 1989-1997; 9) 1998-2004; 10) 2005-2015.
It became possible to create the noted chronostructure only when significant events in the development of the national physical culture and sports movement and sport science and the evolution of the "TiPFK" journal were synchronously actualized. Effective implementation of this approach was predetermined by the use of information from previous publications on related topics [5-8], as well as results of analysis of our databases of the "TiPFK" journal articles (1925-2015 [21 779 articles]), citation in the "TiPFK" journal (89 170 citations per 8012 articles) and theses on the problems of theory and methodology of sport training (382,709 citations per 1790 theses).
Periods in the evolution of the "TiPFK" journal are hard to allocate since it is hardly possible to set a single objective criterion for classification. For example, such a significant integrated indicator of public interest in the journal as its circulation (see Fig. 1-4 on cover page 3) hardly shows any changes in its content. So we applied various grounds to unite stages into periods and justify their objectivity by actualizing them within a particular historical situation.
Objective of the paper was to allocate the periods in the evolution of the "Teoriya i Praktika Fizicheskoy Kultury" journal (1925–2015).
Results and discussion. The first two stages, covering the period 1925-1941, are comparable in heterogeneity of topics of the journal articles, a wide range of its sections, changes of the share of scientific articles, as well as the overall publishing instability of the journal (see Fig. 1-4 on cover page 3).
With all these indicators in view the post-war stage (1945-1951) is very close to this period. However, it greatly differs from the previous stage by high degree of fear one can feel in the publications. This is seen in an abrupt almost 4 times increase of the average age of cited documentary sources (see Fig. 1-4 on cover page 3). In addition, there are almost no references to foreign sources in the publications of those years. This is a direct consequence of the on-going anti-cosmopolitanism campaign that has been pursued almost through all the 50-ies. But this is not the main thing that unites these two stages. This is the time when studies in the field of sport (including theses) become more intense (see Fig. 1-4 on cover page 3).
60-ies are the most difficult, the most controversial stage not only in the evolution of the "TiPFK" journal, but also in the development of the national physical education and sport science. The propagated by the country's party leaders methods of management of the Soviet physical culture and sports movement gradually came into conflict with its practice. This primarily affected scientific activities, which already had an established methodology by then [1, 3, 4]. Raised consciousness of the scientific community activated the degeneration process of the "TiPFK" journal, which started establishing certain targets of scientific research and thus was one of the systemic factors of the integrated system of scientific work in the field of sport established in the 70s. Such an approach to the situation made us unite three phases (1962-1968, 1969-1980, 1981-1988) in a single period.
Late 80-ies was a period of revival of not only the "TiPFK" journal but scientific work in general. The inability to carry out research on the empirical basis of sport teams led to a gradual shift of the focus of scientific research to the area of physical culture (see Fig. 4 on cover page). But due to the destruction of welfare programs there was virtually no demand for this kind of research in new Russia. This was followed by curtailing of many areas of scientific research and the collapse of sport science in the country.
All these factors led to the fact that practically up to early XXI (stages 1989-1997 and 1998-2004), the journal has been in a state of formal governance when it came to survival in the difficult economic circumstances (government agencies controlled it only officially and hardly assist in publishing).
Since 2005 the "TiPFK" journal is an absolutely independent organisation. The segregation of this period in a different step is hypothetical. But the power of new and more effective editorial policy justifies this idea.
We can highlight several periods in the evolution of the "Teoriya i Praktika Fizicheskoy Kultury" journal for 1925-2015 which are as follows:
1925-1941 - The origin and organizational development.
1945-1961 - The period of formation of thematic scope.
1962-1988 - The period of certain goals.
1989-2004 - The period of "formal governance".
2005-2015 – The period of independent development.
- Vrzhesnevskiy I.V. Organizatsiya i metodika nauchnykh issledovaniy v oblasti fizicheskoy kul’tury i sporta: metod. posobie (Organization and methodology of scientific research in the field of physical culture and sports: tutorial) / I.V. Vrzhesnevskiy, V.A. Parfenov, V.V. Vrzhesnevskiy. — Kiev: Gosmedizdat USSR, 1960. – 213 P.
- Danilenko M.A. Metodologicheskie osnovy periodizatsii ryadov dinamiki na baze primeneniya statisticheskih metodov: avtoref. dis. … kand. ekon. nauk (Methodological grounds of periodization of time series based on application of statistical methods: abstract of PhD thesis) / M.A. Danilenko. – Moscow: [s.n.], 1981. – 23 P.
- Metodika issledovaniya v fizicheskoy kul’ture (Methods of study in physical education) / Ed. by D.D. Donskoy. – Moscow: Fizkul’tura i sport, 1961. – 296 P.
- Pedagogicheskie metodyi issledovaniy v sporte: metod. posobie (Pedagogical research methods in sport: tutorial) / Ed. by V.P. Filin. – Moscow: [s.n.], 1960. – 111 P.
- Pronin S.A. Analiz dokumental’nogo potoka dissertatsiy po problemam fizicheskoy kul’tury i sporta (Analysis of documentary flow of theses on the issues of physical culture and sport) / S.A. Pronin // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. – 2007. – № 6. – P. 60–62.
- Pronin S.A. Dinamika publikatsiy zhurnala «Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kul’tury» (1925–2004 gg.) (Dynamics of the «Teoriya i Praktika Fizicheskoy Kultury» Journal publications (1925—2004) / S.А. Pronin // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. — 2005. — No. 11. — pp. 5—8.
- Pronin S.A. Dinamika stepeni ispol’zovaniya razlichnykh vidov dokumentalnykh istochnikov pri napisanii dissertatsiy po tsiklicheskim vidam sporta (Dynamics of use of various types of documentary sources when writing a thesis on cyclic sports) / S.A. Pronin // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. – 2006. – № 5. – P. 11–14.
- Pronin S.A. Evolyutsiya tematiki publikatsiy zhurnala «Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kul’tury» (1925–2009 gg.) (Evolution of the subject matter of the «Teoriya i Praktika Fizicheskoy Kultury» Journal publications (1925-2009) / S.А. Pronin // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. — 2010. — No. 9. — pp. 6—9.
Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
The first two stages (1925—1941) of the evolution of the TiPFK journal are comparable by the variety of topics of the journal publications, a wide variety of section subjects, constantly changing amount of scientific articles and unstable journal production in general.
With all these indicators in view the post-war stage (1945-1951) is very close to this period. However, the main difference in these two periods is the high level of fear present in its publications. It is proved by the significant (4 times) growth of the average age of documentary sources. In addition, there are practically no references to foreign sources in the publications. This is a direct consequence of the on-going anti-cosmopolitanism campaign, which has been pursued almost up to late 50s. The scientific research in the field of sport (especially — thesis researches) was intensified in this period.
The 60-ies is the most complicated and contradictory stage not only for the evolution of the TiPFK journal, but also for the development of Russian sport science. The scientific community demonstrates growth of self-consciousness, which initiated the revival of the TiPFK journal. Its main goal was to create and transmit specific goals to the community. Thus, the TiPFK has become one of the main factors of the genesis of the holistic system of sports scientific research activity.
The revival of the TiPFK journal and scientific activities in Russia started in late 1980s. The inability to carry out research on an empirical basis of sports team led to a gradual shift of the focus of research to the area of physical culture.
Since 2005 the TiPFK journal is an absolutely independent organisation. The segregation of this period in a different step is hypothetical. But the power of new and more effective editorial policy justifies this idea.