Enhancement of Students' Sports Activity via Its Technologization

Enhancement of Students' Sports Activity via Its Technologization

ˑ: 

A.V. Chesnokov, associate professor, Ph.D.
D.A. Kozemov, senior lecturer
A.V. Kozemov, senior lecturer
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk

Key words: conceptual model, educational system, professional competences, students.

Introduction. Physical education classes with male 3rd-year students (5th fall semester) of various faculties and institutes of TPU revealed the following fact: the level of development of motor abilities of students at the time of control tests often does not correspond to the model (standard) level. We believe this discrepancy can be explained primarily by the insufficient (detailed) elaboration of the methodology of development of motor qualities (and corresponding muscle groups), which are necessary for the successful implementation of control tests, which in turn is a consequence of insufficient individualization of training load, when all students perform, in fact, one and the same set of exercises, varying only in weights. Thus, Fig. 1 illustrates the testing results obtained in 3 groups of students in 2009 (the beginning of the experiment) and the compliance of these results with the model level. As seen from Figure 1, in general, students reach the qualifying standards with a "good" grade. Exception to this rule applies in the "Pull-ups" test in which 2 groups hit this qualifying standard with a "satisfactory" mark (B, C) and 1 group (A) - with a "good" mark. Certain difficulties were caused in the tests "Chest dips" and "Standing long jumps".


Fig. 1. Initial testing results in 2009:

a) pull-ups; b) chest dips; c) leg raises; d) push-ups; e) standing jumps

In order to solve the problem of eliminating this discrepancy, we decided to apply the methodology, based on the author's conceptual model and the technology of its implementation in practice, which had been used before in training of physical education teachers, primarily for the purpose of development of motor characteristics needed for the representatives of this profession [1-3, 11]. Surely, we made some amendments in the model itself and the technology of its implementation, to meet primarily the changed goal and objectives of the model, as well as the contingent and pedagogical conditions of the process of physical education of students. The present paper was devoted to these issues.

The purpose of the study was to improve the process of development of motor qualities and abilities of students of the non-core faculties of Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU).

Materials and methods. In terms of our research, the conceptual model reflected a particular educational system, which N.V. Kuz'mina treats as a variety of interrelated structural and functional components serving the purposes of upbringing, teaching and training of the rising generation and adults [6, 9].

In turn, the structural components are defined as the basic characteristics of educational systems, which in a complex form their specific structure and thus they are distinguished from the rest of the systems (non-educational ones).

Among the structural components, necessary and sufficient for the development of educational systems, are [9]: educational goal, teaching and scientific information, means of pedagogical communication, teachers, subjects of the system, functional components.

There are five major functional components of educational systems: gnostical, design, constructive, communicative amd organizational.

Therefore, we consider the conceptual model of the educational system to be an aggregate of the structural (objective, content, methods, objects, subjects) and functional components (tasks, functions, focuses, types, actions and operations) of the educational activity, which interrelate and interact promoting achievement of educational goals and enhancing the effectiveness of the educational process on the basis of recognition and consideration of proficiency, breeding, specific characteristics of the involved in the university educational process as well as its components.

In general, the consistency of the conceptual model (in accordance with N.V. Kuz'mina's approach to determination of the essence of educational systems and their components) [9] forms a theoretical basis of the current research enabling us to analyze, study and organize university educational activity and determine its components. To implement the consistency approach it is necessary to consider the interaction of all the elements, all the subjects of educational activity, as well as the whole system of organization with due regard for its goal, content, tools, the roles fulfilled by all the subjects of the educational process, functions and principles, activities.

The next step in the process of elaboration of the specified conceptual model is assumed to be initiation of the principles that form the core of this model.

Our study brings us to the conclusion that in order to maintain its integrity and ensure its effective implementation a pedagogical concept should be developed basing primarily on the system approach as a variety of interrelated and interacting components [9]. Therefore, we place special emphasis on the principle of consistency as the guiding principle of our conceptual model.

Generally, the principle of consistency is such an approach to the analysis of the phenomena of teaching practice, according to which a relevant phenomenon is viewed as a system, assembly of elements, that is not limited to the total of individual elements, but is characterized by an interaction of these elements, and according to which the properties of the elements are defined by their place within the structure.

Apart from the principle of consistency, there are other principles that are essential for our model: goal orientation (vocational orientation); systematic nature of educational activity; comprehensiveness of educational activity; educative and developmental nature of educational activity; scientifically grounded approach to organization of educational process.

Moreover, the author of the study offers a set of own, amended by us, principles of improvement of the specialist training system:

1. According to the principle of integrity, the conceptual model of improvement of professional competences will be more effective if all available and possible tools and methods of educational, psychological and physiological stimulation and monitoring are used to the full [13-15].

2. The principle of reciprocity. This principle consists in the positive reciprocal influence of the motor and value-culturological components of development of professional skills of a specialist. Thus, during motor activity, reevaluation of certain values takes place, which in turn results in the more effective, conscious and persistent improvement of own professional skills in future [11, 13-14].

3. The principle of conversion necessitates transferring of tools, methods and technologies of stimulation and monitoring from elite sport (where they are more elaborated and, hence, more effective) to the process of training of students of specialized and non-specialized universities [1, 13-14].

Consequently, our modification of the author's conceptual model is based on: new theoretical grounds; principles; content and educational environment that are relevant to the stated objective of our model.

The purpose of elaboration of the updated conceptual model is to develop motor qualities and abilities of students of TPU, and having determined its basic principles, we will gradually move to the specification and development of the rest of its components, particularly to the development of the directions of improvement of the content of specialist definitive training. The theories of definitive training of specialists of different specializations and levels serve as a reference point of the current analysis.

Due to the shift of educational paradigms, educational goals are now associated with the human quality change, who is to embody the ideal of unity of spiritual and physical strength, be a self-creator. This necessitates the introduction of the new content of knowledge offered to him within the educational system, where the methodological potential of information is of key importance [4, 10].

Hence, our amendments in the author's conceptual model can be diagramed as follows (Fig. 2).

Therefore, we substantiated the primary components of modification of the author's conceptual model. It comprises: goal, guidelines for the choice of the content and organization of the educational process, theoretical framework of elaboration of the model content, techniques of implementation of this content in the educational process and so on.

Then, we applied the modified author's conceptual model in the actual process of physical training of students of TPU, which revealed a number of discrepancies and contradictions to the model. The main discrepancies were: lack of individualized approach; lack of integrity, consistency and goal orientation during stimulation; limited use of the available system resources, as well as insufficient elaboration of the diagnostic measures with the system of preventive and corrective actions.

Fig. 2. Modification of the author's conceptual model of development of motor qualities and abilities of students of TPU

To clear the mentioned discrepancies we developed an educational technology, which included a complex of measures for eliminating these discrepancies and involved individual characteristics, capabilities and disabilities of students.

Having determined the approaches to the content of the process of motor training of students, we proceeded to substantiation and elaboration of the corresponding educational technologies.

In order to design an integral scientific concept of the educational technology it is necessary to analyze and understand it from the viewpoints of philosophy, sociology, economics, psychology, etc.

Philosophical understanding of the educational technology as a didactic category consists in putting the issue in the perspective of the historical and logical unity, changing from abstract to concrete, from phenomenon to essence.

The initial phase of the elaboration of the educational technologies is the preliminary design of separate elements, stages of a session for the purpose of arranging and preplanning [3-5].

The analysis of the issues of the teaching technologies revealed that they are encountered in the contexts of goal-setting, preplanning, modeling, structuring and designing [2, 3, 7, 12].

Therefore, the technology is first and foremost inseparably associated with preplanning, as they both have common goals and are result-oriented. The reciprocal influence of the technologies and preplanning suggests that new sources of preplanning are possible when designing educational technologies.

In domestic pedagogical science they started to develop a technological approach to vocational training in the 90's of the last century. Thus, in their studies, V.V. Guzeev, S.S. Dobrovol'skiy, M.M. Levina et al. [3, 7] worked at the issues of the structure and logical organization of educational technologies, methods and means of implementation of educational technologies, principles of structuring and informational criteria of evaluation of the effectiveness of their use.

The theoretical basis of the design of educational technologies were thoroughly studied in the research works by A.P. Belyaeva [2], V.A. Krutetsky [5].

However, these technologies were developed irrespective of the specific nature of physical training activity of the students of non-core universities.

So, based on the above, we started to elaborate individual components of our educational technology. According to the principle of integrity, we had offered earlier, apart from its components (goal-setting, selective, programming, activity, motivational and evaluative/analytical), the basis of the educational technology was formed by the educational, psycho-pedagogical and physiological-pedagogical methods of stimulation and monitoring, namely:

  • educational (sets of exercises aimed at improvement of the results of the most problematic qualifying standards - not more than two-three standards due to the limit of volume and time allowed for a separate session, (these sets will be introduced below); optimization of the exercise/rest mode by means of the biofeedback (BFB) mechanism - the pulsometry method, when a set is performed at heart rate of 130-140 bpm; constant self-control and mutual control (in-process, on-going, stage-by-stage) - for this purpose, prior to the session, the students received the mutual control cards so that they could cross-check the quantity and quality of the sets, repetitions, training weights and express and write down their comments and  methodological recommendations regarding the exercises performed);
  • psycho-pedagogical (elements of the motor imagery practice; autogenic training - when prior to performing a set, especially during hitting the qualifying standards, students get ready by going through the most important moments regarding both performance of exercises and optimum concentration for performance);
  • physiological/pedagogical (reasoning of the need for the purpose of acceleration of the body recovery processes, daily bath or sauna); massage and self-massage between the sets and at the end of the session; pharmacological support (complex vitamin fortification; medicinal products that increase the effectiveness of the cardio-vascular system function - Asparcam, Panangin, Mildronat; medicinal products that stimulate the excretory system function - Carsil, Essentiale forte, etc. (all pharmaceutical substances were used on medical advice); proper nutrition (lowering of calorie concentration of foods for the overweight students and protein drinks for the individuals with the low muscle mass, etc.).

In view of the above, in September, 2010, (at the beginning of the semester) a pretesting was conducted in 3 groups of students of TPU, which enabled us to determine the "problematic" qualifying standards beforehand, and basing on the identified problems, to work with each student individually.

Results and discussion. Proceeding from the analysis of the obtained data and basing on the similar data received in 2009, it was found that the most problematic qualifying standards were: "pull-ups" and "chest dips". Since it was the first year (2010) when we started the practical application of the educational technologies, we developed only 2 sets of exercises for effective hitting of the mentioned qualifying standards. Though, no sets for the rest of the tests were used.

I. Set for improvement of the pull-ups performance.

1. Behind neck pull-up – 2 sets to failure (2×to failure).

Methodological recommendations: if a student performs more than 15 repetitions in each set, weights should be used.

2. Chin-ups – 2×to failure.

3. Standing barbell bicep curl – 3×8.

4. Seated barbell wrist curl – 2×15-20.

II. Set for improvement of chest dips performance.

1. Close grip bench press – 3×8-10.

2. Flat bench French press – 3×10-12.

3. Standing barbell French press switching hands with alternate regripping – 2×12.

At the end of the four-month artistic gymnastics training with the use of the offered sets of exercises, the results of students from 3 groups were as follows (Fig. 3):


Fig. 3. Testing results in 2010:

a) pull-ups; b) chest dips; c) leg raises; d) push-ups; e) standing jumps             

Basing on the testing results, it may be concluded that: as opposed to the previous academic year and the results obtained at the beginning of the current academic year the "Pull-ups" and "Chest dips" tests were no longer lagging. Thus, all the 3 groups of students passed the first test with an "excellent" grade, and only one group (A) got the mean group "good" grade in the second test, while the rest of the groups got “excellent” grades.

Proceeding with enhancement and detailed elaboration of our educational technology, in 2011 we designed and started to implement the sets of exercises intended to improve the performance of all the 5 tests.

III. Set for improvement of the bar leg raises performance.

1. Hanging leg raises from a pull-up bar - 3×15-20.

2. Incline bench twisting sit-ups to the left and to the right leg - 3×15-20.

3. Seated barbell twists - 2×50.

IV. Set for improvement of the push-ups performance.

1. Bench press 4×8-10.

2. Dumbbell bench press 3×8-10.

3. Dumbbell lying lateral raise 3×12-15.

4. Reverse grip bench press 3×10-12

5. Lying dumbbell pullover 2×12-15.

V. Set for improvement of the standing long jumps performance.

1. Spring down with further jumping forward 2×5.

2. Box jump burpee 2×8-10.

3. Barbell jumping back squats 3×6-8.

4. Back squats 3×12-15.

Hence, in 2011 Group C acted as an experimental one. Groups A and B were the control ones (Fig. 2).

The testing revealed that the students from Group C reached all the qualifying standards with an "excellent" grade, except for the "Standing long jump" test. The students from Groups A and B, as a rule, hit the qualifying standards with a "good" grade.

In 2012, in order to prove the effectiveness of our educational technology, two experimental groups were selected - B and C. Group A was the control one (Fig. 5).

Fig. 4. Testing results in 2011:

a) pull-ups; b) chest dips; c) leg raises; d) push-ups; e) standing jumps


Fig. 5. Testing results in 2012:

a) pull-ups; b) chest dips; c) leg raises; d) push-ups; e) standing jumps

As seen from the represented data, it is the students from Groups B and C who now hit the qualifying standards with an "excellent" grade. While most of the students from Group A - with a "good" grade.

Consequently, the effectiveness of the educational technology we offered was practically assured, so in 2013 it was used in all the 3 groups of students attending the artistic gymnastics classes. Its high efficiency was proved once again by he testing results (Fig. 6).


Fig. 6. Testing results in 2013:

a) pull-ups; b) chest dips; c) leg raises; d) push-ups; e) standing jumps

Conclusion. The study resulted in the development and experimental verification of a complex of educational, psycho-pedagogical and physiological-pedagogical methods of stimulation, monitoring and self-evaluation, focused on professional development of future teachers of physical education, which served as a starting point in design and development of the educational technology.

Proceeding from the findings, it can be concluded that the use of the modified author's conceptual model and the technology of its implementation in practice enabled individualization of the process of development of motor skills and abilities at physical education classes of the 3rd year students of various institutes of TPU, which had a positive impact on the performance of control tests according to the curriculum.

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Corresponding author: a9c8@tpu.ru