Management of Physical Training of Students Based on the Use of Score Rating Control


V.I. Grigor'ev, professor, Dr.Hab.
Yu.K. Shubin, postgraduate student
Lesgaft National State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Health, St. Petersburg
I.A. Panchenko, associate professor Ph.D.
N.A. Zinov'ev, senior lecturer
National University of mineral resources "Mountain", St. Petersburg

Key words: score rating control, taxonomic structure, diffuse model, synergism, sampler technologies.

Introduction. Development of models of score rating control (SRC), focused on enhancing physical training of students is a complex multidimensional problem. Its solution is relevant due to poor efficiency of the methods of pedagogical control being used in the educational process, their subjectivity and limited use of health and fitness indicators of students in the correction of the content of the educational process [1]. Despite the attempts to explore these issues made in recent years typological commonness of control methods has not been defined yet, indicators of physical culture and sports activity that should be monitored during the testing have not been validated [2]. Taxonomic characteristics that have internal, sequential interdependence and determine the subject area of SRC (structure and boundaries of control) are of interest in terms of research.

It was assumed that defining cause-and-effect determinants between indicators of physical activity and dynamics of growth of motor abilities by means of SRC will make it possible to identify new capabilities of SRC in management of physical training of students. Solving the noted issue as validation of the structural code of implemented management innovations and conditions of their use is taking actual shape in the new circumstances, transforming from theory into practice of management of physical training of students.

Due to the lack of a universal solution of the set problem it is necessary to model a management algorithm based on qualimetric technologies and principles of structurogenesis [3].

The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of score rating control in management of physical training.

Organization of the study. The experiment was conducted at Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics in order to substantiate the specificity of management of physical training of students. Over three thousand first- and second-year students, males and females, aged 18-19, took part in it.

Results. At the first stage a pilot analysis of typological similarity of pedagogical control and score rating control, innovative in terms of its properties, was carried out with a following taxonomy of characteristics (innovativeness typologies). Methods of formal logical, perceptive and semantic analysis and synthesis were used to determine conjugation of clusters of physical development and health of students with dynamic structures of physical education. Factors of innovative transformation of control functions such as permanency and stochastic property of control, structural property of an object, unalterability, irreversibility and scale invariance were considered as statistically available levels with a possibility of obtaining information to determine the balance of the modeled structure of SRC.

The main issue is to identify the innovative features and technological preferences of SRC that will help nominate it as an alternative to the traditional pedagogical control. Proceeding from our findings, SRC is considered in the codified form as a way of registration, formalization and analysis of the parameters that characterize the level of physical fitness and competences of students. It is characterized by the synthesis of control algorithms and corresponding mathematical apparatus providing data processing. Compared to its precursor - pedagogical control, high-resolution properties of SRC are manifested in its polycode character which contributes to the use of control results in managerial decision-making [4].

Despite the difficulty of interpreting the results, SRC provides physical education teachers with new possibilities in the diagnosis of status and competences of students. Thanks to the developed taxonomic model of SRC taxa agglomerations can be particularized in great depth (levels) and the management mechanism can be studied more deeply (Figure). 

Figure. Graphic interpretation of the taxonomic structure of score rating control

F – cases of work programs used at training departments;

S – monitoring of physical fitness of students;

Т – processability of the educational process;

К – level of competences

As the model is interpreted as a vector one, a suitable graphic interpretation is suggested created on the basis of the polar vector principle. The graphic model is based on the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) focused on the creation of a physical training database (a simple one - Basic, one carrying out simulation modeling of students’ motor activity - Advanced). Modeling tools of physical training of students are used in the web-services operations (for example, Event-controlled Process Chain (EPC); Control Flow Diagrams (CFD).

An algorithm of carrying out score rating control within training departments was developed in three modules: 1) monitoring of theoretical and methodological preparedness; 2) diagnostics of physical activity; 3) assessment of the content of physical culture and sports activity. Individual rating is determined using dynamic series in the description of functional processes of physical, sports and technical, and applied vocational training, attendance, time spent by students for physical culture and sports activity.

The new capabilities of the SRC model include identification of quantitative and qualitative (diffuse) parameters of physical activity and status of students assessed by means of rating points. Informational structures recorded during the monitoring get into logical connections uniting into mental correlates of health saving technologies. By the depth of analysis of heterogeneous parameters of physical activity and fitness of students diffuse properties of control are focused on forecasting the dynamics of development of motor abilities, skills and competences, thus contributing to the increment of motor capital and health. The model has a practical value while analyzing a single resultant vector that characterizes the dynamics of adaptable changes of fitness and competences of students under the influence of physical exercise.

As we see, the management potential of SRC is not confined to just the regulation of physical activity of students: indicators of physical activity of students recorded during control sessions at the operational level correlate with complex features of morphological and functional changes, implicitly affecting the level of acquired knowledge and skills. Analysis of indicators of training and extra-curricular activity of students in the sphere of physical culture and sport stimulates them to diversify the means of physical culture, thereby increasing versatility and depth of the impact [5]. The implemented mechanism has an ambivalent meaning, since it forms conditions for increasing efficiency of management of physical training of students. The advantage of the model is its variability, so SRC can be used when selecting sampler technologies of physical education. If we take into account the fact that with the help of SRC it is possible to track correlates of educational process with indicators of physical development, competences and health of students, then properties of qualitative elements of physical culture education as a whole are transformed through the lens of control functions.

At the same time it has been found that connections between these indicators have a gleaming character that escapes unambiguous interpretation. For example, consistent positive connections are found in a group of athletes specializing in swimming in the following antinomies: intensity of physical load - athletic performance, training - success in a competition - success in studies. As we see, diffuse connections appeared in the increase of the total volume of physical load, success in studies and sports activity, increase of reserves of adaptation to workload, obtaining high level of physical fitness and physical harmony.

Conclusion. The experimental results confirmed the working hypothesis that the developed model of score rating control provides the prevailing goal at the junction of individual management processes and their combination resulted from uniting all organization's processes in a single management system; dynamic causality of educational process, reveals the stochastic nature of formation of students' skills, the implementation of which is associated with the diversification of means, methods and organizational forms of physical education. Its use enhances the consistency and functionality of the management of physical training of students by providing invariant tasks, generalization and synthesis of sampler recreational technologies.


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