Training of Qualified Kickboxers within Year Macrocycle

Фотографии: 

G.V. Rudenko, associate professor, Ph.D.
O.V. Kostromin                
National University of mineral resources (Mining University), St. Petersburg
G.I. Mokeev, professor, Dr.Hab.
K.V. Shestakov, associate professor, Ph.D.
Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa

Key words: planning, training loads, macrocycle, volume, intensity.

For proper management of training of athletes the relationship between training exposures and state of athletes is required to effectively achieve set objectives. However, researchers often analyze only the quality of exposures, which reduces the efficiency of management.

The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between the dynamics of training loads and the state of qualified junior kickboxers within an annual macrocycle.

Materials and methods. The educational experiment was being carried out during 2003-2008 academic years with the group of junior kickboxers aged 17-18 years and ranked First-Class Athletes and Candidate Masters of Sports involved in it.

The structure of training loads within the annual cycle was studied using the methodology successfully proven in boxing (G.I. Mokeev, Yu.B. Nikiforov, A.V. Chernyak, 1977-1986; G.I. Mokeev, A.G. Shiryaev, 1997). About 30 parameters of training activity were taken into consideration such as: volume (min), intensity (%) and total load (multiplication of volume by intensity) in each of 6 groups of exercises (total body conditioning - TBC, specialized body conditioning - SBC, boxing equipment exercises - BEE, development of technical-tactical skills (DTTS) with a partner, stage combat - SC, free-fight and sparring (FFS), and also overall load in an annual and semi-annual macrocycles, periods, stages; microcycles, volume of load in each of 5 intensity zones. In addition, thanks to this research program selective orientation of performed loads, sequence and variability of their implementation in different parts of the annual macrocycle were evaluated, accompanied by rather explicit factual argumentation and "technological" specification (approaches, methods, techniques) of the implementation.

We estimated athletes’ state and fitness dynamics by a number of indicators: collectively - by the level and dynamics of sports results and test results on completion of special control exercises; on a case-by-case basis - by specific indicators of fitness gained by athletes.

The fitness level was evaluated by the following indicators: physical working capacity (PWC 170) at the general and special preparatory phases (within absolute and relative values). The functional status of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems was estimated by the timed inspiratory capacity and timed expiratory capacity (Stange’s and Genche’s tests), psychomotor qualities - by the simple and complex reaction time (SR and CR), accuracy of reaction to a moving object (RMO) within a 3-second interval, and sense of time. Special fitness was assessed by the number of punches in a boxing platform within 10 sec, 60 sec and 3 2-minute rounds.

The effectiveness of competitive activity (ECA) was estimated by a set of characteristics (according to O.P. Frolov, 1966): number of strokes per bout, coefficients of attack effectiveness (CAE), of defense (CD), of attack rolls (CAR) and of endurance (CE). The latter was determined by the relation of the amount of strokes in the final round of the bout to the amount of strokes during the whole bout. Moreover, taking into account the specific nature of the given sport, the abovementioned coefficients were determined separately with regard to the punches in the upper body (trunk and head) and lower body (legs) of an athlete.

The athletes' subjective sensations were estimated using the WAM questionnaire (R. Mattezius, 1972).

A total of 20 athletes were examined, most of them were observed during the 2 annual cycles. Some of their indicators were tested on a monthly basis, while others - at the pre-season training phase - on a weekly basis, and the third group of indicators was examined on a daily basis. Thanks to such organization of the study the information on the stage, current and operational status of the athletes was obtained.

Results and discussion. At the end of the 2-year study of athletes' training the following essential differences in setting of annual volumes of general and partial loads were determined (Table 1).

Table 1. Annual values of training loads*

Groups of exercises

Training macrocycles

1st macrocycle

2nd macrocycle

V (min,%)

ARI, %

V (min,%)

ARI, %

TBC

5478-61

60

4793-52

51

SBC

1761-20

66

2162-23

62

OL

850-10

70

771-9

65

DTTS

458-5

71

1039-11

70

SC

245-3

100

282-3

100

FFS

219-3

91

140-2

100

SF

3533-39

72

4346-48

68

Total volume

9011-100

64

9187-100

60

Number of competitions

6

6

 

V – volume of load, ARI - averaged relative intensity

1. In the first training year the athletes were more involved in total body conditioning and development of technical-tactical skills (free-fight and sparring) under the close to competitive conditions (685 min and 79 min more respectively) than in the second year. Such volume of total body conditioning exercises was required to reduce the tension occurring after the previous training activity due to the more frequent use of competitive exercises during training sessions.

2. In the second year, on the contrary, the kickboxers paid more attention to special physical training as compared to the first year. They increased the duration of their work with a partner and used special body conditioning exercises more often. Particular attention of the athletes to DTTS with a partner and SBC exercises facilitated both elimination (or minimization) of errors in their technical training and expansion of technical and tactical range.

So, coupled cycles of annual training were used during the 2-year training. Let us pursue a comparative study of the peculiarities of the volume distribution of overall and partial loads in the similarly-named macrocycles.

The analysis of training loads within the similarly-named two year macrocycles resulted in the following conclusions:

1. The values of the total load volume within the similarly-named macrocycles differ insignificantly; higher-volume loads prevail in initial macrocycles compared with the succeeding ones.

2. Physical training of athletes in the overall training process takes much of the time and consists primarily of running, strength and game-playing training sessions. In both macrocycles more time was allotted to this part of work during the first year of training.

3. The training process gets more specialized with the increase of athletes' fitness: the 2nd training year was more specialized than the first one, in both macrocycles. The reserves of special physical training of athletes were replenished by means of the whole complex of the means used in kickboxing. In a greater degree - moderate intensity exercises, in a lesser degree - high intensity ones. In both macrocycles of the 2nd training year the priority in special training was placed on    SBC exercises and exercises with a partner. In macrocycles of the 1st training year the athletes were more focused on special physical training and included exercises with equipment and SBC exercises into their training.

4. Within the 2nd training year at the initial phase of both macrocycles the athletes participated in 2-week special training in order to eliminate technical errors that had been detected earlier. This facilitated more varied technical and tactical actions in the future, acting more effectively and rationally under extreme conditions of pre-season and season activity.

Table 2. The volume and ratio of training loads in context of the 1st and 2nd variants of organization of annual training process*

 

Training macrocycles

1st macrocycle

2nd macrocycle

2003

2004

2003

2004

V, min-%

ARI, %

V, min-%

ARI, %

V, min-%

ARI, %

V, min-%

ARI, %

TBC

2860-60

60

2697-57

52

1923-55

60

1592-44

52

SPC

971-21

68

1028-21

64

702-20

70

941-26

62

AE

441-9

69

298-7

65

385-11

73

417-11,5

66

DTTS

300-6

71

523-11

70

158-5

71

468-13

70

SC

85-2

100

147-3

100

160-5

100

135-3,5

100

FFS

69-1

86

66-1

100

150-2

94

74-2

100

SF

1866-40

71

2062-43

69

1555

73

2035-56

69

Total volume

4726

64

4759

60

3478

65

3627

62

 
V – volume of load, ARI - averaged relative intensity

Conclusion. In case of approximately equal volumes of load but different volumes of partial loads, successful competitive performance and the degree of tolerance of training loads differed in athletes. In the second pre-season-season macrocycle competitive athletes were more successful in control and major competitions of the year, while maintaining the maximum degree of physical state, technical and tactical skills and good psychological condition. In the 1st training macrocycle their performances were less successful. In addition, some athletes noted that they got tired of training and often did not want to train and compete.

References

  1. Matveev, L.P. Theory and methodology of physical culture (general basics of the theory and methodology of phys. education: theor.-method. aspects of sports and applied prof. forms of physical culture: study guide for institutes of phys. culture: sup. by State committee of the USSR on physical culture and sport / L.P. Matveev. – Мoscow: Fizkul'tura i sport, 1991. – 543 P. (In Russian)
  2. Mokeev, G.I. Organization of training of boxers of higher grades in the pre-season training phase: abstract of Ph.D. thesis / G.I. Mokeev. – Мoscow, 1983. – 18 P. (In Russian)
  3. Rudenko, G.V. Applied professional physical training of students of mining specialties based on chosen sport (case study of boxing): abstract of Ph.D. thesis / G.V. Rudenko. – Malakhovka village (Мoscow region), 1987. – 24 P. (In Russian)
  4. Tumanyan, G.S. Kinesiology as a branch of science and academic discipline / G.S. Tumanyan // Fundamental issues of sports kinesiology: Collected research works. / MSAPhC. - Malakhovka, 1991. – P. 150-158. (In Russian)

Corresponding author: panfilio@spmi.ru



* Volume of load was determined by the "nett time" of activity (refer to the works by G.I. Mokeev, A.V. Chernyak "Boxing", 1977-79) within the annual cycle on the whole, including the off-season.