Physiological Characteristics of Adaptation at Multimodal Approach in Organization of Physical Education Process

Фотографии: 

E.Yu. D’yakova, associate professor, Dr.Med.      
A.N. Zakharova
National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk

Key words: exercise therapy, physical education process, body adaptation.

Introduction. Nowadays, social and environmental conditions, demographic issues, intensification of production, difficulties in organization of medical care have led to the increase in the number of diseases and reducing life span of Russian people. A young organism is most susceptible to the adverse effect, as particularly sensitive to environmental factors. It is known that a lot of modern schoolchildren are in the pre-disease state or have some dysfunctions of the body's systems [1]. One of the essential reasons for this situation is the lack of motor activity among students. It has been proved that success in university studies is closely related with functional status and health, as health deterioration leads to reduced efficiency and increased fatigue [4].

In 2010 the groups of exercise therapy (ET) for students with serious health deviations were organized at Tomsk State University. However, the use of physical exercises for the purpose of therapy and rehabilitation requires precise dosing of physical load, thorough recording of contraindications to exercises of the ones with particular diseases, recording of the specific impact of physical exercises. There is a need for a strict individualized approach to the students who have some dysfunctions of the body's systems, which is rather problematic if groups are not differentiated by diseases.

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the physiological changes in the body of students training in the groups of exercise therapy in accordance with the developed methodology.

Materials and methods. The research was conducted at TSU involving first-year students, who on doctor's orders were recommended to take ET. A total of 50 people took part in the experiment, they were divided into groups without regard to the form of the disease. The experimental group (23 people) followed the developed methodology, the control group consisted of 27 people. The classes were given twice a week and lasted 75 minutes. It was the doctor who was responsible for the study permit.

During the ET classes, the control group performed non-specific conditioning exercises, and specific exercises for each disease particularly. The frontal method of organization of the training session was used. In this case, dosing of individual load is absolutely impossible, which is quite important while working with students who have some dysfunctions of the body's systems.

The use of the group and individual methods provided the basis for the developed methodology. The introductory part (10 min) implied measurement of blood pressure and pulse, determination of the students' health state and their readiness for classes.

The preparatory part (15 min) is focused on the total body conditioning of the students. Warm-up in motion includes different kinds of walk combined with arm movements and breathing exercises. Warm-up on the spot presupposes performance of conditioning exercises with and without accessories. Conditioning exercises are not complex in their structure, their intensity increases gradually. The frontal method of organization of the involved is used here.

The main part (35 min) included the sets of exercises which were developed for each disease or each group of diseases particularly. All of the involved were divided into groups or performed exercises individually. Each of them received a particular individual task and fulfilled it all by himself. A trainer controlled their work selectively or by turn. The advantage of such type of organization is in the ability to organize groups by diseases, use loads that comply with the level of physical fitness of students, and with that, consider all necessary contraindications to exercises.

In the final part (15 min) stretching, relaxing muscles exercises, eye gymnastics, coordination exercises and attention span games with the use of different accessories were used.

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed methodology, to determine the level of body adaptation of the students to physical loads, physiological tests were used [cardiorythmographic study by means of the device for functional diagnostics "Valenta" (produced by "Neo Company" LLC, St. Petersburg, Russia); methods of study of the autonomic nervous system: orthostatic test, clinostatic test, Ashner test; measurement of wrist dynamometry indices with succeeding evaluation of the mobility of nervous processes by means of the device for psychophysiological testing "NS-PsychoTest" (produced by "NEURO-SOFT", Ivanovo city, Russia); study of coordination abilities by means of the device for psychophysiological testing "NS-PsychoTest" (contact coordinationometry)]. Basing on the results obtained earlier the most indicative criteria were determined [5].

Results and discussion. By the identified criteria the implementation of the methodology in the experimental group turned out to be more successful than in the control one.

As seen from Table 1, there is a significant reduction of the indices of SW2/FW (centralization index) and (SW1+SW2)/FW (vagosympathetic interaction index) in the experimental group as compared to the control one, which is indicative of the growing influence of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) [3].

Table 1. Indices of cardiorhythmographic study, Хmean±m,%

Indices

EG at the beginning of the year

EG at the end of the year

CG at the beginning of the year

CG at the end of the year

 
 

Fast wave power, norm.

81,7±3,5

96,2±3,6*

94,4±2,9

96,2±3,4

 

Slow wave power 2, norm.

157,9±11,6

129,7±18,7*

129,1±12,5

124,1±13,6

 

SW2/FW

206±12,6

144,1±14,4*

146,8±17,4

137,1±12,6

 

(SW1+SW2)/FW

147,9±18,6

141,8±15,4*

119,8±12,4

123,2±17,4

 

pRR50

36,1±3,8

55,7±2,9*

43,8±2,8

49,8±1,9

 

Comments. Here and in Table 2: * – statistically significant difference between the indices of the control and experimental groups at the beginning and at the end of the academic year where p<0,05.

 

During the analysis of CRH of the students from the experimental group, a significant increase was registered in pRR50, which is an indicator of sinus arrhythmia connected with breathing [2]. The improvement of this index (Table 1) indicates the growing activity of the parasympathetic regulation unit.

While studying the indices of the fast and slow wave power an increase in the FW power index (normalized unit) and a decrease in the SW2 power (normalized unit) are marked in the experimental group (Table 1). Fast waves (FW), i.e. vibrations between 2 to 10 sec, are produced entirely by the parasympathetic division of ANS and are connected with the breathing phases [3]. The increase in the FW power and the decrease in the SW2 power indicate a growing dominant influence of the  parasympathetic division of ANS, and a hyperadaptive reaction [2].

Proceeding from the results of the study of hand muscle strength with the assessment of mobility of nervous processes, the maximum muscle strength of the left hand and the retention time of the maximum effort of the left and right hands have increased statistically significantly in the experimental group, as proved by the data (Tab. 2).

Table 2. Indices of dynamometry and contact coordinationometry, Хmean±m

Indices

EG at the beginning of the year

EG at the end of the year

CG at the beginning of the year

CG at the end of the year

 
 

Dynamometry indices

 

Mean power, daN

25,1±1,5

27,7±1,4*

25,3±1,5

24,2±1,4

 

Retention time of the maximum effort  of the left hand, sec

2,9±0,4

3,9±0,6*

3,9±0,3

2,6±0,2

 

Retention time of the maximum effort of the right hand, sec

2,9±0,4

3,6±0,6*

3,8±0,5

2,8±0,4

 

Contact coordinationometry indices

 

Number of contacts

44,9±3,5

33,2±1,4*

41,9±3,5

34,4±3,4

 

Total contact time, sec

3,7±0,4

1,9±0,2*

3,2±0,4

2,5±0,2

 

 

According to the results of the contact coordinationometry, the coordination function has improved in the groups under study. However, in the experimental group the increase turned out to be much more significant: statistically significant differences were registered in the number of plate contacts and total contact time (Table 2).

Conclusions. Students of the experimental group were noted to have a significant increase in body adaptabilities in respect to cardiovascular, muscular system, nervous regulation, which will help them to cope with daily physical and mental loads, effectively resist the effects of unfavorable external factors (stress, climatic conditions, etc.).

References

  1. Artamonova, L.L. Exercise therapy and adaptive recreational physical culture / L.L. Artamonova. – Moscow: Vlados Press, 2010. – 394 P. (In Russian)
  2. Baevsky, R.M. Analysis of heart rate variability using different electrocardiographic systems / R.M. Baevsky // Vestnik aritmologii. – St. Petersburg, 2001. – № 24. – P. 65–87. (In Russian)
  3. Berezny, E.A. Practical cardiorhythmography. – St. Petersburg: Neo, 2008. – 93 P. (In Russian)
  4. Dedkov, Yu.L. Theory and Practice of physical culture for students with poor health / Yu.L. Dedkov, V.A. Platonova, E.V. Zefirova: SPbSUITMO, 2008. – 96 P. (In Russian)
  5. D'yakova, E.Yu. Evaluation criteria of functional status of students of groups of exercise therapy / E.Yu. D'yakova, A.N. Zakharova // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. – 2013. – № 7. – P. 25-29. (In Russian)

Corresponding author: vshilko@mail.ru