Mechanisms of Formation of Immune System Disorders in Elite Athletes (Case Study of Biathlon)

Фотографии: 

G.I. Mokeev, professor, Dr.Hab.
Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa
G.V. Rudenko, associate professor, Ph.D.
O.V. Kostromin, A.V. Zaytsev
National University of mineral resources (Mining University), St. Petersburg

Key words: boxing, macrocycle, planning, cumulative training effect.

It is known that during the year an athlete can be in the best condition and therefore ready to achieve his minimum sports performance 2-4 times (A.D. Novikov, L.P. Matveev, G.S. Tumanyan, I.P. Degtyarev, P.N. Platonov et al). According to this, the entire period of supervised training is divided as per the number of major competitions into an appropriate number of macrocycles (MC) 3-6 months long each; for better management each macrocycle is divided into medium cycles - mesocycles (MSC) - 2.5-3 weeks long with more specific objectives and content.

Pre-season training phase (PTP) takes a special place in the sequence of mesocycles, for its intended purpose is to "bring" an athlete to the optimum fitness level for highly efficient and resultative competitive activity.

The purpose of the study was to develop the conceptual basis for the organization and content of pre-season training of boxers.

Results and discussion.

In the study we worked with two types of load components as we believe specialization and volume to be the leading ones for combat athletes (according to M.A. Godik, 1980). Based on these considerations we chose a load dose of motor specialization (Dms) and a load dose of psychophysiological specialization (Dpsphs).

In our study the load dose of psychophysiological specialization was measured as a product of points of a tool (according to Table 1) on the duration of its use. One and the same tool can be used in different intensity modes; so this was taken into account (run: Dpsphs - 1, Dpsphs - 6; basketball: Dpsphs - 6, etc). This load indicator that we chose as the major one is similar to that of mental stress criterion proposed by V.S. Keller (1977). Although we to some extent disagree with V.S. Keller in the interpretation of the concept and content of the index (we have it as a load dose, and V.S. Keller - as mental stress), the similarity is obvious and appropriately used. All Dpsphs tools are listed in Table 1. Thus, the value (volume and intensity) and specialization of all “elementary units” of athlete’s training were taken into account in load doses.

Example: a boxer performs a common body conditioning test (high-intensity running for 11 minutes, competitive mode). His Dms is 3.63 c.u.; Dpsphs is 66 c.u. He got such a load during the test.

If an athlete runs the same 11 minutes but does not push himself to the limit (medium pace), then Dms (the level of locomotor involvement) will be the same while psychophysiological effects of the test load will be 2 times less.

The next step of the study was to determine the place of each dose in the training process for them to be timely. To do this a series of educational experiments was organized and carried out that included current control of the key criteria and indices of athletes’ condition on the one hand, and load doses on the other, the goal being to determine the cumulative training effect (CTE) of training tools of different specialization (G.I. Mokeev, A.G. Shiryaev, 1984; G.I. Mokeev, Y.M. Valiev, 1985; G.I. Mokeev, A.G. Shiryaev, A.V. Chernyak, 1988; G.I. Mokeev, A.G. Shiryaev, 1991, 1997; G.I. Mokeev, V.A. Kuz’min, A.G. Shiryaev, 1992 et al).

Table 1. Scale of intensity of training loads

Group of exercises

Item

Features of exercises

Average heart rate, bpm

Intensity, points

Relative intensity, %

Body conditioning

Running, swimming

Low steady pace

120-129

1

17

Swimming

Football

Resistance exercises

Medium pace

Medium pace

Medium pace, small and medium weight

130-139

2

33

Running

Medium pace, short-term acceleration possible

140-149

3

50

Basketball

Resistance exercises

Medium pace

High pace — medium and heavyweight

150-159

4

67

Swimming

Football

High pace, acceleration possible

High pace, competitive method

160-169

5

83

Running, basketball

High pace, competitive method

170-179

6

100

Special preparatory

Simulation exercises

Rope jumping

Simulation exercises

Low pace

Low steady pace

Medium pace

130-139

2

33

Rope jumping

Shadow boxing

Medium steady pace

Medium pace

140-149

3

50

Simulation resistance exercises and with a partner, boxing fight

Medium pace

150-159

4

67

Shadowboxing

Rope jumping

High pace

160-169

5

83

Shadowboxing

Rope jumping

High pace with long accelerations

High pace with long accelerations and double moves

170-179

6

100

Engaging boxing equipment

Light punch bag, heavy punch bag

Low pace, working on individual strikes and techniques

140-149

3

43

Light, heavy and pneumatic punch bags, wall mounted clapper, boxing bag

Medium steady pace, short-term acceleration is possible

150-159

4

57

High pace with accelerations or medium pace, short-term acceleration is possible

160-169

5

71

Exercising with boxing bag

Exercises on Hook & Jab Pad

High pace with accelerations

Medium pace, short-term acceleration is possible

170-179

6

86

Exercises on Hook & Jab Pad

High pace with accelerations

180-189

7

100

Technical and tactical skills improvement (TTSI) and mock fights

TTSI

Low pace,

weak partner, working on individual methods

150-159

4

57

TTSI

Medium steady pace

160-169

5

71

TTSI

High pace with accelerations, strong partner

170-179

6

86

Mock fight

Medium and high pace with accelerations

180-189

7

100

Competitive exercises

Free-fight

Medium pace,  group method, weak partner

180-189

7

70

Free-fight

High pace, strong partner

190-199

8

80

Sparring

Medium and high pace

200-209

9

90

Mock fight

 

Over 210

10

100

Table 1 contains synthesized data of our research (G.I. Mokeev, Yu.B. Nikiforov, M.L. Avakian and V.S. Keller, 1977).

The methodology of data processing was borrowed from N.I. Semyonov and A.G. Shiryaev (1982): the idea is in finding the maximum correlation of series of features that are shifted relative to each other. One series includes load doses of different specialization degrees, the other - criteria of fitness and indicators of athletes’ condition. In our study the criteria were as follows:

1 - expert evaluation of competitive activity (CA) of an athlete;

2 - expert evaluation of his range of techniques;

3 - expert evaluation of technical skills;

4 - expert evaluation of tactical skills;

5 - expert evaluation of tactical flexibility;

6 - expert evaluation of functional readiness;

7 - self-assessment of physical condition;

8 - self-assessment of special fitness;

9 - simple motor reaction time (RT);

10 - reaction to a moving object (RMO);

11 - sense of time;

12 - left hand dynamometry;

13 - right hand dynamometry;

14 - ability to differentiate the effort of the left hand;

15 - ability to differentiate the effort of the right hand;

17 - attention span (Schulte method);

18 - timed expiratory capacity;

19 - times inspiratory capacity;

20 - amount of heart rate recovery after a dose of special load;

21 - number of beats per 20 seconds.

The arrays of the data (daily values of Dms and Dpsphs and criteria gained once in a microcycle) were subject to correlation analysis. Within the data a number of load doses were shifted back by 24 hours of the training process for each subsequent calculation. The values of the correlation coefficients served as indicators of the CTE of the impact of a particular training means (its dose) on a particular criterion of fitness or an indicator of condition of an athlete.

The materials of our numerous studies involving over 2500 combatants were processed this way, as well as those of six target experiments from 5 to 12 months long that involved boxers of different qualifications, age and fitness levels (G.I. Mokeev, 1985; 1987; 1989; 1997, et al).

According to the findings of the correlation analysis, the overall obvious trend is the impact of limited specialization doses onto mainly criteria and indicators of physical fitness and activity level of athletes. The time of the onset of these effects varies from 11 to 66 days, i.e. they take place during body conditioning, special preparatory and pre-season training stages.   

Therefore: 1) enhancement of athlete’s preparedness for effective competitive activity using the body conditioning program is not completed at the stage of the latter and even at the stage of special training; 2) enhancement continues further and this process requires only justified allocation of the timing of load doses, but not their limitation.

Special boxing exercises display maximum correlations with the basic criteria and CA indicators and parameters that are important for combatants in a competition (indicators of self-confidence, physical condition, attention process). AP (attention process) remains within the framework of 2-3 weeks. Full grouping of reliable relationships of doses of special load with the main criteria and indicators of self-confidence is accounted for the high degree of compliance between SPE (special preparatory exercises) and CA. AP is within 7-25 days.

The analysis of the findings resulted in the following conclusions:

1) the laws of change of periods of influence of load doses of different volumes and specializations on the qualified boxers’ fitness criteria depending on Dms and Dpsphs were defined;

2) the time parameters of CTE from training load doses were determined (the largest number of delayed relationships of load doses and criteria is within the AP of 25-7 days before the competitive period);

3) the most informative criteria of control of CTE from training means in boxing were defined being as follows: 1-8, 16,19-20.

Conclusions. The study revealed that:

1. Regularities appear in probabilistic relationships of indicators of athletes' condition and load parameters.

2. The manner and time limits of the cumulative training effect of means of various specializations underlie these regularities, knowing which the training process can be most targeted and effective.

Thanks to using the peculiarities of the CTE the process is controlled with the reliable prediction of result of applied loads.

3. Time limits of the CTE were defined by finding the maximal correlation of microcycle series of criteria of athletes' conditions and amount of work they perform.

The amounts of load developed for this, being "elementary units" of load, adequately reflect the athlete's training work in minimal amounts (up to specific exercise) in specialization and volume.

4. Time limits of the cumulative training effect of boxing methods of different specializations were set:

- body conditioning routine (running, swimming, football, etc): 11-66 days;

- special preparatory exercises (simulation exercises, shadow boxing, etc): 7-40 days;

- exercises engaging boxing equipment (punching ball, punch bag, etc): 6-45 days;

- special boxing exercises (with a partner, special competitive tasks): 7-35 days.

5. The pre-season training phase of 25-7 days before a competition is highlighted as critical (in stress and specialization).

At this phase increased amounts of load of the corresponding cumulative training effect are performed along with the display of important qualities, abilities and indicators in the competitive period.

References

  1. Matveev, L.P. Theory and methodology of physical culture (general basics of the theory and methodology of phys. education: theor.-method. aspects of sports and applied prof. forms of physical culture: study guide for in-tes of phys. culture: sup. by State committee of the USSR on physical culture and sport / L.P. Matveev. – Мoscow: Fizkul'tura i sport, 1991. – 543 P. (In Russian)
  2. Mokeev, G.I. Organization of training of highly skilled boxers at the precompetitive training phase: abstract of Ph.D. thesis / G.I. Mokeev. – Мoscow, 1983. – 18 P. (In Russian)
  3. Rudenko, G.V. Applied professional physical training of students of mining specialties based on chosen sport (case study of boxing): abstract of Ph.D. thesis / G.V. Rudenko. – Malakhovka village (the Мoscow region), 1987. – 24 P. (In Russian)
  4. Tumanyan, G.S. Kinesiology as a branch of science and academic discipline / G.S. Tumanyan // Fundamental issues of sports kinesiology: Collected research works. / MSAPhC. - Malakhovka, 1991. – P. 150-158. (In Russian)

Corresponding author: panfilio@spmi.ru