M.M. Kolokol'tsev, professor, Dr.Med.
R.A. Ambartsumyan, postgraduate student
National Research Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk
Key words: foreign students, physical culture, physical development, physical fitness.
Introduction. Training of foreign students in Russian universities is a significant component of the country's foreign economics and political activity and is of federal importance, which is fixed in the "Concept of export of educational services in 2011-2020" adopted in the country .
National Research Irkutsk State Technical University (NRIrSTU) with more than 1300 foreign students from 30 countries all over the world is one of the universities offering modern educational services.
Successful realization of adaptation of foreign students to studying in Russia is possible in case of creating a comfortable life infrastructure for them . In this context it becomes vitally important to search for the ways to improve health and to increase physical performance, functional capabilities of the body and adaptation to training of highly qualified specialists [2,10,11,13]. Most researchers consider physical education to be an essential factor of formation and rehabilitation of health of young people [5,7,12]. What is interesting from the viewpoint of research and practice is the increase in the health level and adaptation mechanisms of foreign students using techniques and methods of physical education.
At the same time, in the literature related to the Siberian region only the problems of physical development of foreign students are considered . Research papers regarding their physical fitness are lacking, hence the study of their physical health and adaptation to education in the institutions of the Baikal region is of special academic interest.
The purpose of the study was to enhance functional characteristics of physical fitness and health of female foreign students of technical university of the Baikal region conducted using the innovative extended motor mode.
Materials and methods. In September 2012 there was formed an experimental group (EG) consisting of 54 female foreign students who were subject to the extended motor mode. In addition to physical exercises stipulated by the curriculum, the mode included additional physical activity in groups in a gym for 2 hours a week. It was implemented in the form of exercises aimed at correction of the detected weak motor qualities, as well as in the form of sport games (mainly basketball). The game technologies were chosen given that using active and sport games contributes to students’ more active independent work, peer coaching, self-control and mutual control, organization of different forms of mutual help , which is significant for foreign students. The content of the everyday "home" self-tuition of each student was determined in view of their weak motor qualities and was designed on the basis of individual differentiation of exercises. Exercises lasted not less than 15 and not more than 30 minutes, and were carried out at home in the morning, afternoon and in the evening.
Prior to starting their self-tuition, the students were to gain a certain amount of theoretical knowledge and practical skills in doing exercises, to learn about the principles of dosing of physical load, and acquire skills of self-control of own physical state. It was mandatory for the students to keep a diary of their state of health. Foreign students took part in mass sports events of the faculty, course, training groups and the university. The control group (CG) consisting of 53 female foreign students attended physical education classes in mixed national groups twice a week and were followed the motor mode, which was provided by the requirements of the State Educational Standard of the second generation - it was mainly body conditioning (BC) with the use of exercises intended to develop the main motor skills.
The examination conducted within the control and experimental groups comprised: somatometric studies (height, weight, chest circumference (CC), physiometric studies (hand-held dynamometry), and functional tests such as: timed inspiratory and expiratory capacity tests (Stange’s and Genche’s tests), 20 squats test (Martine-Kushelevsky test). The cardiorespiratory system was examined by the heart rate (HR) and endurance ratio (ER) characteristics. The adaptation level was estimated by the adaptation index (AI), which was calculated by the method of R.M. Baevsky revised by A.P. Berseneva (1987) . In order to evaluate the main motor qualities of the students the following tests developed by All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Physical Culture were used: 10x5m shuttle run, sec; 20m walk run, sec; sit-ups, number of reps per 30 sec; hang, sec; standing long jump, cm; straight leg-stretch, cm) and 1000m distance run, min, sec .
Results and discussion. At the beginning of the study (2011-2012 academic year) it was found that anthropometric measurements (body height, mass and CC) and a number of functional characteristics (hand muscle strength, breath tests) indicated in the result of speed and endurance tests are higher in the Russian students than in their peers from abroad. Female students from the countries of Central Asia, as well as Russian students had much better speed endurance and agility, shoulder and body flexor strength compared to their peers from Southeast Asia. However, the latter showed higher rates during the flexibility test as compared to the Russian students and the females from Central Asia. The dynamic lower limb muscle strength in the females from the countries of Southeast Asia is almost the same as in the Russian students and is significantly better than that of the students from Central Asia.
1. Physical education classes, conducted according to the curriculum for higher educational institutions in the discipline "Physical Education", do not provide the proper growth of motor qualities of female foreign students.
2. Foreign girls engaged in physical education using the extended motor mode are significantly ahead of their peers involved in the regular program regarding functional characteristics (HR, 20 squats test, post-exercise recovery time of HR, hand-held dynamometry, breath tests, adaptive capacity, endurance ratio), as well as characteristics of motor qualities.
3. Given the features of motor qualities and physical development detected in female foreign students further development and correction of technologies of their physical education is required using individually differentiated education both at university classes, and in case of controlled self-study (additional physical education classes, section training in specific sports, sports and fitness events, hiking, etc.). Exercises to enhance identified weak aspects of physical fitness should be used in physical education classes.
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