V.Yu. Lebedinskiy, professor, Dr.Med.
M.M. Kolokol'tsev, professor, Dr.Med.
National Research Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk
Key words: monitor, pulse, heart rate, students, physical education, team system, cardiovascular system, university.
The accumulated empirical experience in theory and methodology of physical education is clearly differentiated as to the employment of its tools and methods in elite sports and for individuals involved in physical culture. At the present stage of development of our society, when health of the Russian citizens is giving rise to public concern, integration of sports and recreation technologies are needed, as well as their differentiation in view of physical fitness, gender and age of the involved on the basis of the relevant information on their demands and needs in the field of physical education [1, 3, 4].
In this respect, the use of the modern innovative methods of monitoring of functional state of each student is getting more pertinent. In order for the diagnostics to be objective and of a more applicative character, it should be carried out explicitly during traditional physical education classes .
Particularly, for the purpose of solving this problem, the Scientific-Research Laboratory "Health Monitoring" was established in National Research Irkutsk State Technical University. The problems being solved at its premises are as follows: students’ physical health research, elaboration of regional standards of their physical development and physical fitness, introduction of monitoring technologies into training process, development and assembly of specialized equipment for functional diagnostics, in-depth integrated control of physical health of specific groups of athletes and students. The laboratory works in close cooperation with the centers of biomedical research and health protection technologies in NRIrSTU.
One of the focus areas of the laboratory is biomedical support of educational and training process. In order to carry out the integrated control over the functional state of the individuals involved in physical culture, it is essential for the methods of remote monitoring to be used explicitly during the classes . For that very reason we have purchased and are successfully using the team system POLAR Team² Pro, which consists of 20 heart rate monitors working remotely and synchronously.
The purpose of the study was to improve the educational process on the discipline "Physical Education" using modern methods of heart rate (HR) monitoring in university students.
Results and discussion. Pulse is an indirect indicator of the body state. By its rate one can estimate load, recovery, potential disease and general state of health. Since it is easy enough to measure hear rate (HR), these methods have gained ground. Simple manual pulse measurement often shows low accuracy due to a number of reasons: inattentiveness of students, lack of practical knowledge, etc., besides such measurements are usually taken between exercises and do not describe the body reaction exactly while performing the exercise.
Meanwhile, using the team system POLAR Team2 Pro one can accurately analyze motor density of classes, calculate average heart rate for a group at a certain moment of performance of an exercise, identify the fittest students and adjust the load of those who perform exercises with the insufficient intensity. Furthermore, remote monitoring of heart rate using heart rate monitors in persons doing physical exercises mainly only within the compulsory physical education classes amounting to over one thousand people in total, has revealed some specifics (Fig. 1, 2) of their reactions.
Figures 1 and 2 represent an extract from the main part of the class. The first wave (similar reaction indicated on both figures) shows the change in the pulse rate while performing a series of intense weightlifting exercises. Then a slight pulse rate decrease is observed - the students were performing breathing exercises for 5 minutes. After that they ran the 800-meter distance. During this exercise an abnormal reaction of the cardiovascular system was registered in four out of twenty individuals.
When starting an exercise, HR of these students increases, as of everybody else, but after a while it decreases significantly, almost by the resting rate, and this rate remains unchanged up to the end of the exercise, and once it is finished HR restores and relatively lines up, which corresponds to the general tendency in the group. Similar reaction was observed both in young males and females from the body-conditioning groups (ranged in the first and second functional health groups), while they were performing different exercises of maximal and submaximal intensity, normally at the end of the main part of the class. Furthermore, it is worth mentioning that while examining a specific training group of 20 people, the number of such students equaled one to five. No such reaction was registered in the students attending sport sections.
Fig. 1. HR during adequate reaction to physical load
Fig. 2. HR during physical load after non-compliance with regimen
When analyzing the research findings, including the questionnaire survey of the students with the same reaction, the following results were obtained. The current reaction is not systemic, i.e. it is observed not in each class and in different students. During the questionnaire conducted right after the class, almost all of them (80-90%) emphasized in their medical history the noncompliance with the regimen. Generally it is expressed in: lack of good night's sleep, alcohol consumption shortly before, omission of breakfast or lunch on the day of the class, occurrence of stressful situations. While performing the exercises of maximal and submaximal intensity such students point out a slight dizziness and general weakness.
According to the researchers, the objective indicator of such conditions is the deterioration of adaptability of the cardiovascular system to speed load. This condition is similar to overtraining by its symptoms, in other words - when physical, behavioral and emotional states of the involved, occurring during the given volume and intensity of training load, exceed their recovery capabilities. This phenomenon is typical for beginners who subject their untrained bodies weakened by noncompliance with the regimen to inadequate load. It occurs due to the following factors: circadian stress, diseases, fatigue at work, periods, poor nutrition, etc.
Conclusion. Thanks to the use of such team systems in classes mass analysis of the students' functional state can be made to determine their level of physical working capacity and individualize physical loads for them.
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