Indices of Educational Activity and Psychophysiological Features of Schoolchildren in View of Static and Chaotic Approaches

Indices of Educational Activity and Psychophysiological Features of Schoolchildren in View of Static and Chaotic Approaches

ˑ: 

V.A. Vishnevsky, associate professor, Ph.D.
K.A. Mironova, K.A. Karimov
Surgut state university of KhMAR-Yugra, Surgut

Key words: indicators of learning activity, psychophysiological characteristics of schoolchildren.

Introduction. It is common knowledge that a good teacher is characterized by his ability to see individual characteristics of children. The differences proved to be important during the educational process are on the first place. Special credit belongs to the features of the nervous system, which constitute the dynamic aspect of mental life as speed, pace, physical working capacity, concentration, switching attention, perceptual speed, etc. Style of learning activity depends largely on these neurodynamic features. Meanwhile, the dynamics of behavior of complex systems of developing organism in the educational process cannot always be fully estimated and described using classical statistical and stochastic approaches. In this connection it is interesting to examine this behavior from the standpoint of modern inter-disciplinary areas such as the chaos theory and synergetics too [2-4].

The purpose of the study was to identify the indicators of learning activity, taking into account the psychophysiological characteristics of schoolchildren in view of the statistical and chaotic approaches.

Materials and methods. 751 1-11 formers of the secondary schools №26 and №39 of Surgut were involved into the study.

Results and discussion. The learning rating increased in the primary school age and fell among senior schoolchildren (Table 1).

Table 1. Dynamics of learning rating of schoolchildren of Surgut (Mann-Whitney U Test)

Age, years

Boys, adolescents, points

Girls, adolescents, points

n

M±σ

U, p-level

n

M±σ

U, p-level

7

39

6.64±2.88

25

8.04±3.04

8

43

6.98±2.17

776, 0.561

39

6.97±2.01

335.5, 0.036

9

43

7.79±1.51

674, 0.035

38

7.71±1.29

598.5, 0.146

10

33

7.00±2.45

546, 0.086

40

7.03±2.12

628.5, 0.188

11

47

7.49±2.25

645, 0.204

32

7.88±0.71

490, 0.089

12

39

7.46±2.08

883, 0.774

27

5.26±2.61

152, 0.0002

13

47

6.57±2.53

717, 0.083

23

7.48±1.73

142.5, 0.001

14

29

7.35±1.56

583.5, 0.294

24

7.42±1.97

275.5, 0.991

15

29

7.41±2.13

387, 0.607

28

7.00±2.27

327, 0.868

16

32

6.25±2.19

317.5, 0.034

26

6.54±2.48

321, 0.456

17

40

5.85±2.64

583, 0.518

23

6.52±2.55

295.5, 0.944


According to the study of focusing on knowledge acquisition, boys had high values of this factor only during the first three years of education. Then the interest in knowledge wanes, especially for 14 year old and older boys. Girls were interested in learning up to the age of 11, then this factor decreased too (Table 2).

Table 2. Focusing on the knowledge acquisition among schoolchildren of Surgut

Age, years

Boys, adolescents, points

Girls, adolescents, points

n

M±σ

U, p-level

N

M±σ

U, p-level

7

39

8.95±2.14

25

9.12±1.20

8

42

9.19±1.90

754, 0.542

39

9.46±1.57

410.5, 0.289

9

43

8.93±1.65

776.5, 0.266

38

9.42±1.31

724.5, 0.866

10

33

8.36±1.95

564.5, 0.128

40

9.15±2.08

744, 0.872

11

47

8.15±1.64

733, 0.677

32

9.31±0.69

596, 0.618

12

38

8.05±1.75

880.5, 0.912

27

7.78±2.18

279, 0.019

13

47

7.38±2.06

706, 0.098

23

8.44±1.85

271, 0.441

14

29

7.97±1.76

562.5, 0.203

24

8.67±1.49

265.5, 0.823

15

29

6.45±1.99

239, 0.004

28

7.79±2.32

256, 0.141

16

32

6.50±2.05

460, 0.953

26

6.54±2.08

260, 0.071

17

40

6.80±1.36

588, 0.555

23

6.30±2.42

280, 0.03


As concerns the learning outcomes, boys strive for maintaining a high average grade point up to the age of 10. The most intense drop of this point occurs between the ages of 10 and 14. Girls keep the point at the high level for a year longer, up to the age of 11, but then their academic progress drops too (Table 3).

Table 3. Progress in studies of schoolchildren of Surgut (Mann-Whitney U Test)

Age, years

Boys, adolescents, points

Girls, adolescents, points

n

M±σ

U, p-level

n

M±σ

U, p-level

7

8

43

4.15±0.44

41

4.36±0.39

9

43

4.32±0.41

729, 0.091

40

4.29±0.49

584, 0.286

10

33

4.05±0.44

453, 0.007

41

4.40±0.29

527.5, 0.189

11

47

3.92±0.39

655, 0.238

32

4.19±0.21

277, 0.0003

12

39

3.73±0.39

656, 0.023

27

3.87±0.33

216, 0.0002

13

47

3.81±0.44

835, 0.479

23

4.12±0.54

222.5, 0.005

14

29

3.50±0.37

424, 0.005

26

3.71±0.39

163, 0.002

15

29

3.41±0.27

331, 0.163

30

3.82±0.61

368, 0.474

16

32

3.42±0.46

421, 0.534

27

3.62±0.53

308, 0.022

17

40

3.36±0.35

617, 0.794

23

3.75±0.45

180, 0.010


The most significant positive changes in the psychophysiological sphere of schoolchildren are observed in the primary school age. With the onset of puberty changes the improvement of characteristics slows down. Thus, the statistical analysis of the latent periods of simple sensorimotor reaction (Table 4), which reflects the human integral CNS characteristics enabling to perform complex motor-identification actions, revealed that the most pronounced decrease in the time of the sensorimotor reaction occurs among 8-14 year old boys and 7-11 year old girls.

Table 4. Dynamics of the time of sensorimotor reaction of schoolchildren of Surgut

Age, years

Boys, adolescents, ms

Girls, adolescents, ms

Right hand

Left hand

Right hand

Left hand

n

M±σ

n

M±σ

n

M±σ

n

M±σ

7

38

299±49

38

307±56

25

335±58

25

349±60

8

41

296±48

41

307±54

34

290±42**

34

296±45***

9

45

269±61*

45

267±57**

36

283±41

36

285±41

10

35

256±29

35

260±38

33

260±29**

33

265±36*

11

43

256±47

43

261±50

38

243±37*

38

243±33**

12

32

243±48

32

252±53

28

248±45

28

256±47

13

45

233±35

45

239±38

28

244±43

28

253±43

14

27

207±29**

27

223±28*

24

241±41

24

243±43

15

28

233±51*

28

237±62

36

221±28*

36

223±33*

16

31

224±31

31

225±29

27

243±45*

27

248±37**

17

42

216±32

42

211±33*

26

235±38

26

232±30

 

Note. Here and in the Tables 5-7: *** – differences are significant as compared to the previous age group at p < 0.001; ** – at p < 0.01; * – at p < 0.05.

The age dynamics of attention switching was virtually the same (Table 5). The highest reduction in the time of test performance occurs between the age of 7 and 10 both for boys and girls. In this period of ontogenesis boys are quicker in attention switching rather than girls. However, by the age of 10 the difference disappears, and then by the age of 16 girls have an advantage over boys. The second significant leap in the rate of attention switching happens at the age of 15. At the senior school age this parameter is stabilized, and boys restore their leadership again.

Table 5. Dynamics of attention switching of schoolchildren of Surgut

Age, years

Boys, adolescents, s

Girls, adolescents, s

n

M±σ

n

M±σ

7

38

177±66

25

224±113

8

41

120±3***

34

133±59***

9

45

110±49

36

117±4

10

35

92±26*

33

86±43**

11

43

96±38

38

91±23

12

32

88±43

28

81±28

13

45

76±20

28

67±21*

14

27

80±21

24

73±24

15

28

68±21*

36

59±14*

16

31

61±19

27

58±18

17

42

64±25

26

66±19


The features of the integrative function of the brain activity in time and space perception are revealed in the responses to a moving object (RMO). The dynamics of variations in the RMO test showed that the most active improvement of this factor occurs at the age of 8-10 and 7-8 for boys and girls, respectively (Table 6).

Table 6. Dynamics of variations in the RMO test among schoolchildren of Surgut

Age, years

Boys, adolescents, c.u.

Girls, adolescents, c.u.

n

M±σ

n

M±σ

7

38

100±57

25

152±143

8

41

109±97

34

90±61*

9

45

91±55

36

99±72

10

35

71±34*

33

96±62

11

43

77±50

38

85±41

12

32

78±46

28

88±48

13

45

75±46

28

82±39

14

27

69±33

24

84±62

15

28

60±32

36

82±41

16

31

57±40

27

78±48

17

42

50±24

26

54±36*


The individual variations of the dynamic aspect of mental life are determined primarily by the strength, motility and balance of the nervous processes. The results of the study of the nervous process intensities using the software version of E.P. Il’in’s tapping test indicated that children with mild to moderate strength of the nervous system dominated in the sample (Table 6). It is noteworthy that the most intense changes in the maximum frequency of hand movements within 5 s, reflecting the increase in lability of the nerve centers and actuators, occur at the age of 7-11 and 7-10 for boys and girls, respectively (Table 7).

Table 7. Dynamics of index of intensity of nervous processes (c.u.) and maximum frequency of movements for schoolchildren of Surgut

Age, years

Boys, adolescents

Girls, adolescents

Intensity of nervous processes, c.u.

Maximum frequency in 5 s, times

Intensity of nervous processes, c.u.

Maximum frequency in 5 s, times

n

M±σ

n

M±σ

n

M±σ

N

M±σ

7

38

-27.9±15.1

38

26±3.8

25

-22.5±27.4

25

25±3.2

8

41

-29.6±9.4

41

28±2.7*

34

-24.5±8.7

34

27±2.8*

9

45

-23.6±12.1*

45

29±2.4*

36

-23.0±11.1

36

28±2.8

10

35

-24.0±10.3

35

29±3.3

33

-21.9±10.6

33

30±2.6***

11

43

-22.1±13.8

43

32±2.7**

38

-25.7±7.5

38

30±4.3

12

32

-26.5±8.5

32

33±3.8

28

-20.6±11.8*

28

30±3.4

13

45

-20.1±13.9*

45

33±2.7

28

-19.9±10.7

28

32±3.5

14

27

-23.5±9.4

27

34±2.9

24

-20.3±7.7

24

31±2.5

15

28

-20.4±11.7

28

35±4.6

36

-18.7±6.5

36

31±3.0

16

31

-21.6±16.5

31

35±4.1

27

-14.6±8.6*

27

31±3.0

17

42

-17.8±9.6

42

35±4.1

26

-17.2±7.3

26

32±3.5

 

Proceeding from the analysis of learning activity from the standpoint of the method of multidimensional phase spaces, the lowest volume of the quasi-attractor of behavior of the learning vector and the highest consolidation of stochastic and chaotic parameters are observed during the transition to a new stage of education, i.e. at the age of 11 and 15 (Figure).

Fig. Dynamics of the volume of quasi-attractor of learning vector of schoolchildren at the stages of school ontogenesis (average grade point, focusing on knowledge acquisition, learning rating, V value, c.u. – subspace volume)

At this moment a kind of mobilization of the functional system aimed at achieving results in learning activities occurs. Studies act as an order parameter at the age of 8-10 and 16-17 for girls and 8-9 and 12-17 for boys. The determinative influence on the age inter-attractive distances is exerted by the learning rating and focusing on the knowledge acquisition.

Conclusion. We have previously shown the fundamental changes which largely determine the future prospects of the school education and its psychoemotional and physiological values occur in the primary school age [1]. The present study proves that it is promoted by the most significant positive changes in the psychophysiological area of schoolchildren.

References

  1. Vishnevsky, V.A. Psychoemotional and physiological "cost of learning" and learning outcomes at different phases of school ontogenesis / V.A. Vishnevsky, N.A. Aghadzhanyan, A.A. Mar’yanovsky, A.V. Gulin // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. – 2011. – № 6. – P. 83-89. (In Russian)
  2. Es’kov, V.M. The concept of norm and pathology in the phase space in view of the compartmental-cluster approach / V.M. Eskov, R.N. Zhivoglyad, N.M. Kartashova, Yu.M. Popov, A.A. Khadartsev // Vestnik novykh medistsinskikh tekhnologiy. – 2005. – V. 12. – № 1. – P. 12-14. (In Russian)
  3. Prigozhin, I. Order out of Chaos / I. Prigozhin, I. Stengers. – Moscow: Progress, 1986. – 432 P. (In Russian)
  4. Haken, H. The main concepts of synergetics / H. Haken // Synergetic paradigm. The variety of approaches and searches. – Moscow: Progress-Traditsiya, 2000. – P. 28-55. (In Russian)

Corresponding author: apokin_vv@mail.ru