Strength Abilities Providing Hold Efficiency of Judokas of Different Categories



K.V. Yugay, teacher
Samara State Aerospace University (national research university).  
Department of Physical Education

Key words: hold efficiency, strength ability, dynamometer, software.

Introduction. Real judo begins with making holds (grapping), the presence of which can result in judoka's scoring attack and throws. A hold is a grapping operation performed by hands allowing withholding any part of the body to meet the opponent's attacking moves, techniques and defensive actions. [6] Releasing from a hold and winning it is called the struggle for a hold. In competitions, a qualified judoka spends 80 % of his time on making a hold. [5]

Many experts believe that developing your own personal hold is the primary condition for winning a fight. It means that the quality of a hold in judo largely determines the effectiveness of the fight. A technique of the holds and methods of teaching it, as well as physical abilities that improve hold efficiency, and opportunities of improving them require a more detailed consideration. To date, methods of teaching holds in judo are not developed enough.

Unfortunately, there are no studies about the specific features of making holds in the fight. After having analyzed educational literature, viewed competitions, made various qualifications judokas' and coaches' polls the problem is identified as the lack of physical fitness in the struggle for a hold. In this regard, there is a need to develop methodology for assessing the level of power abilities determining hold efficiency of various judoka categories and the relation between their performances.

The purpose of research was to determine the level of power ability which defines the capture efficiency of judokas of different qualifications and the interrelation between their showings.

Technique and organization of the study.

To assess the strength abilities associated with the implementation of a hold in judo, we used a special wrist dynamometer connected to a personal computer and software that allows you to determine the amount of pressure on the dynamometer at different times (priority reference number 2013 148 490 from 08.10.2013g.).

The study involved 96 judokas including 10 masters of sports, 19 candidates for the master of sports and 67 judokas of the first category. General performances of the testees are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Testees' performances in the experiment  (mean value ± standard deviation)


1 category

Candidate of Master of Master sports – Master of Sports

Statistical significance

Height (cm)

175,9 ± 5,6

173,9 ± 3,6

p > 0,05

Weight (kg)

70,8 ± 6,8

71,7 ± 6,5

p > 0,05

Age (years)

18,5 ± 0,8

18,4 ± 1,2

p > 0,05

Three tests were developed imitating the nature of the palm in the struggle for a hold. The task of the first test was to determine the maximum force exerted by the palm. The testee took a dynamometer into the leading hand and lifted it to a right angle with their palms are turned down. Within all the three tests, the testees took the same position. By the operator's signal the testee clutched the dynamometer with maximum force without changing the hand position. Each testee was allowed to make three attempts with a rest to a full recovery.

The best result was recorded  into the of the Record Sheet. The task of the second test was to determine the capacity for a multiple repeated effort. The testee is given the task to squeeze the dynamometer as hard as possible 10 times. Each subsequent compression is performed immediately after the preceding one. We determined the mean amount of 10 compressions. The third test was for static strength endurance. The testee had to squeeze the dynamometer as hard as possible and tried to keep the maximum possible effort for 60 seconds. We determined the mean amount of the compression force by dynamometer for 60 seconds. The significance of differences of sample data was assessed by using one-way ANOVA (ANOVA).

Table 2. Indicators of power ability of the palm benders of judokas of different qualifications (mean value ± standard deviation)


1 category

Candidate of Master of Sports – Master of sports

Statistical significance

Absolute value


Maximum squeeze (kg)

51,2 ± 7,8

51,2 ± 5,6

p > 0,05

Tenfold squeeze (kg)

41,0 ± 7,6

42,0 ± 4,7

p > 0,05

Tenfold capacity 60 second (kg)

22,8 ± 4,9

34,2 ± 4,6

p < 0,001

Relevant values, body weight


Maximum squeeze (kg)

0,723 ± 0,090

0,720 ± 0,101

p > 0,05

Decimalize squeeze (kg)

0,579 ± 0,097

0,590 ± 0,081

p > 0,05

Hold 60 second (kg)


0,321 ± 0,061

0,479 ± 0,067

p < 0,001

Results and discussion. The results presented in Table 1 show that the testees were of the same age, height and weight. All participants were divided into two groups depending on their qualification. The analysis of the data in Table 2 shows that there are no significant differences between the judokas of the first category and those of Candidate for Master of Sports-Master of Sports neither in their relative values (relative to body weight) in the first two tests. The following can be the probable reasons for that:

1) small importance in the structure of power readiness of a judoka respective to their power capabilities;
2) not enough attention is paid in the training process to develop maximum strength of the wrist and fingers flexor in judo and as a result it appears to receive  insignificant increment;
3) insignificant impact of competitive activity on these abilities on the stage Candidate of master of Sports – master of Sports. The third test revealed significant differences between judokas of the given qualifications. The pronounced differences and absolute and relative refractive power of endurance in judokas of different qualifications show the significance of these power capabilities for the implementation of competitive activity in judo and the need for appropriate exercises for their development.

Conclusion. The results have shown that the level of strength endurance in the first judoka discharge is low compared with candidate of master of sports. What can be concluded that this is one of the most important criteria for being prepared in the struggle for a hold. To improve teaching methods of holds in judo, you need to develop a set of exercises to develop strength endurance.

The research results show that the level of staying power of the first rank judokas is on a low level comparing with CMS-MS. That means that this point is one of the most important criteria of readiness to a fight for grapping. To improve the methods for teaching grapping in judo it is necessary to devise a set of exercises for developing sportsmen staying power.


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