Improvement of Applied Professional Physical Training of Bachelors of Engineering in Technical University (Profile "Forest Science")
Improvement of Applied Professional Physical Training of Bachelors of Engineering in Technical University (Profile "Forest Science")
T.A. Martirosovа, associate professor. Ph.D.
Siberian state technological University, Krasnoyarsk
Key words: bachelor, applied professional physical training, motor skills and abilities, professionally important qualities.
Innovative development of Russia is associated with the modernization of higher professional education. This is reflected in the Concept of Federal target program for the development of education 2011-2015, and in the new law “On Education in the Russian Federation”. New state educational standards are based on the competency building approach and focused on the formation and development of professional and general cultural competencies that will help a future specialist be a subject of professional activities.
The improvement of manufacturing techniques and technologies makes an engineer to develop and enhance his skills. The more perfect the equipment and production technology, the more perfect should be an expert managing them. Therefore, the new concept of education introduced significant adjustments to the traditional interpretation of the purposes of education, setting high requirements to the professional training of a modern specialist, the quality of education and its fundamental renewal. The content, forms, methods, and programs should be focused on the realization of potentialities of bachelors as future engineers and their training for professional work. The increasing amount of professional activities, including motor activity of varying intensity, suggests an appropriate theoretical, functional and physical training of a bachelor. Heightened requirements are placed upon the level of development of particular physical and psychological qualities that contribute to more effective performance of professional work and form the complex of professionally important qualities .
In this regard, the new role of physical culture education should be realized, stipulating for an efficient professional training of modern engineers by means of physical culture and sports. Thereby, the applied professional physical training (APPhT) aimed at the formation of professionally important qualities of future engineers, development of their physical fitness, and solving a number of professional, creative and personal problems is actualized. However, insufficient attention has been paid to such training of bachelors of engineering of technical universities. The search for new approaches to their training by means of physical culture is relevant and timely. We consider the APPhT as one of the pillars of the system of vocational education of bachelor-engineers in technical universities, that forms applied professional knowledge, skills and abilities which help a future specialist attain actual readiness for the conditions and impacts of professional activity .
The purpose of the study was to scientifically prove the concept of improvement of applied professional physical training of bachelors of engineering in technical university (“Forest science” profile).
The theoretical substantiation of the necessity of improvement of applied professional physical training of bachelors of engineering in technical universities was given in the study, a specifically oriented direction of APPhT of bachelors of engineering in the forest science profile was allocated, the appropriate educational support was developed and implemented and the effectiveness of such training was verified using an experiment.
Materials and methods. The experiments were carried out at Siberian state technological University. The study involved 800 full-time students of the Department of forestry, including bachelors specializing in landscape architecture (specialization code 250700.62, landscape construction), forestry (specialization code 250100.62, forestry, and forest industry), environmental engineering and water management (specialization code 280100.62, environmental planning). The following main directions of analysis were assigned for its higher efficiency: determination of physical fitness of bachelors, basing on the development of their professionally important physical qualities; determination of the bachelors’ physical development; allocation of the level of development of psychological qualities of future specialists.
Results and discussion. The specially focused APPhT reflects an original approach to the formation of applied professional knowledge, motor skills and abilities required in a particular professional activity, it allows using various means of physical training for a fast and qualitative development of specific labor abilities and skills, enhanced productivity, recreation, prevention of occupational diseases and injuries, promotes the development and improvement of physical and psychophysical qualities; as a result, theoretical knowledge in the spheres of industrial physical culture, training, professional motor abilities and skills is attained, and organizational skills are developed.
The specially focused applied professional physical training should be carried out taking into account the requirements of professional activities, take a considerable time of training classes, and be implemented during and after classes using all the opportunities provided by physical culture.
The educational support of specially focused APPhT for bachelors of engineering of technical universities is a combination of factors and conditions of their implementation by means of particular educational forms, methods, procedures and techniques, and it is determined by:
- an analysis of the features of professional activity of the forestry specialists (manufacturing process with a description of methods of work, typical accidents, injuries, work organization, sanitary conditions and occupational hazards);
- forming a set of requirements to physical qualities, motor abilities and skills, mental processes and emotional states (high endurance level, ability to find bearings on a rough terrain, ability to rationally use energy, well-developed motor skills, trained body used to abrupt changes in meteorological conditions, psychological resistance);
- the substantiation of professionally important physical qualities (endurance, strength, speed, flexibility, agility); mental processes (sensations, perception, attention, conception, memory, certain ways of thinking); emotional states (stress tolerance, working ability);
- the determination of the main directions of the specially focused APPhT for bachelor-engineers with forestry profile (general and special physical training with improvement of the basic physical qualities (motor competences), the development of psychophysical and psychological qualities by means of physical culture and methods of psychophysical self-regulation;
- the use of forms and means of physical culture (theoretical and practical lessons, sports events with applied professional purposes; individual and independent applied professional physical exercises; applied special sports).
In a technical university the educational process as a space of a variety of educational opportunities has a multiple-factor influence on the professional formation and development of a future specialist personality, allows implementing various factors of an educational phenomenon, forming educational conditions, designing various models, implementing special educational actions, and promoting personal and professional self-actualization and professional formation of a bachelor .
The first educational factor of improving the applied professional physical training (in the context of our study) is its specifically oriented direction distinguished by us, the essence of which consists in integrating the requirements of a particular profession to form applied professional knowledge, motor abilities and skills, physical and special qualities needed for professional work. The second factor stems from the procedural characteristics of a holistic educational process in a university, and we relate it to the development of a special integrated teaching approach to the APPhT, which should be implemented both in and outside the classes with the active use of various methods, forms and means of physical culture. This is caused by the fact that the process of development of physical qualities should be implemented during a year-round and long-term training that can be carried out in the framework of the developing environment of a holistic educational process allowing harmonious combining the academic and extracurricular work of a bachelor. The third factor we distinguished is the organization of an efficient interaction in the system teacher-student, which would enable the teacher to implement educational actions during the applied professional physical training and provide bachelors with opportunities for individual development, personal and professional self-actualization, and professional realization.
This author’s concept contributes to grounding, developing and implementing the educational support of the specially focused applied professional physical training, which refers to a set of conditions of the development of particular educational forms, methods, procedures and modes.
The first educational condition, development of educational content of applied professional physical training of bachelor-engineers in technical universities, is determined in the framework of culturological, environmental, system, personality action and competency building approaches, and is based on the principles resulting from these approaches; it provides bachelors with an opportunity to form by means of physical culture applied knowledge physical, psychological and special qualities, abilities and skills, motor, general cultural and professional competencies that contribute to successfull professional activity; it is divided into organizational and methodological blocks: professionally oriented block (complex of educational methods, forms and means, aimed at the development of physical qualities), climatic biorhythmological block (complex of health protection and strengthening measures aimed at improving physical health, increased functional resistance to the adverse effects of specific conditions of work), control and correction block (operational, current and final-stage monitoring of the physical and functional indices of physical fitness), individual and independent block (complex of educational activities aimed at individual formation of important for future professional careers physical qualities, motor abilities and skills), and stages of implementation (the preparatory and analytical 1st stage (1st course), the correction and developmental 2nd stage (1st course), the forming and training 3rd stage (2-3 course), final presentational 4th stage (4th course); it is implemented by an experimental practice-oriented curriculum, changed structure of physical culture classes, containing five parts (introductory (10 min), preparatory (25 min), training (35 min), recovering (10 min) and final (10 min), technique of recreational and healthy walking, complex application of breathing and relaxation exercises.
The second educational condition, educational organization of continuous applied professional physical training of bachelors in a technical university, is related to the development and improvement of basic professionally important physical and psychological qualities of bachelors. It is implemented in stages by means of organized by teacher physical training during academic hours, during the summer field studies, as well as self-study trainings of students both during examinations and vacations. It is divided into the following stages: the preparatory 1st stage is associated with the learning process and includes a wide range of used methods, means and forms which provide a general increase in body’s functionality; the special preparatory 2nd stage is related to the time of summer field studies; the transitional 3rd stage comprises the time of examinations and vacations and involves self-study, self-education, physical self-development and improvement. It includes a pilot scheme designed to develop and improve physical qualities during academic studies, a program of development and improvement of physical properties during field studies, bachelor’s personal journal with teacher’s recommendations for independent homework, a program for developing professionally important qualities (mental processes, psychological characteristics and skills), including the means of physical culture and modern techniques of practical psychology (autogenic training, relaxation, meditation, self-hypnosis, psychophysical training, recreation).
The third educational condition, teacher’s organizational and educational support of specially focused applied professional physical training of bachelor-engineers in technical universities, consists in developing a professionally oriented approach to the assessment of efficiency of the specially focused applied professional physical training of bachelors. It is provided by specially designed diagnostic tools including the benchmarks for determining the dynamics of physical development and fitness, the set of standardized psychological techniques, questionnaires, as well as pedagogical observation and self-inspection of students.
The above mentioned gave rise to the development of an educational model of enhancement of applied professional physical training of bachelor-engineers in technical universities (Fig.).
Figure. Educational model of enhancement of applied professional physical training of bachelors in technical university
Bachelor as a subject of professional and educational activities of a university, seeking to become a professional, is on the top of the educational model. The basis of the formation and development of professional’s personality is formed by the educational process in a university, in which the educational factors (driving forces, base) of improving the applied professional physical training of a bachelor are revealed (those that determine the goal, content, educational activities and result), the organizational and educational conditions of implementing the specially focused applied professional physical training are distinguished, and the specific educational forms, methods, procedures and techniques are determined:
- the educational factors: specially oriented direction of APPhT; special integrative training approach to APPhT; organization of an effective interaction in the teacher-student system;
- the educational conditions: development of the educational content of the specially focused applied professional physical training of bachelors; educational organization of the continuous applied professional physical training of bachelors; teacher’s organizational and educational support of the specially focused applied professional physical training of bachelors;
- the special educational forms, methods, procedures and techniques: experimental practice-oriented curriculum, changed structure of physical culture classes, technique of healthy walking, complex application of breathing and relaxation exercises; experimental plan on the development and improvement of physical qualities during academic hours, and program of development and improvement of physical qualities during summer field studies.
The program and methodological support of the specially focused applied professional physical training of bachelor-engineers in technical universities was implemented using the following educational and methodological materials:
- the original specialized practice-oriented pilot program for applied professional physical training (including theoretical courses, applied training and educational and methodological lessons); the program for development and improvement of physical qualities during field studies, self-study during examinations and vacations; the program for development of professionally important qualities, consisting of motivational and targeted, organizational and substantial, control and evaluation components; an adapted program for bachelor-engineers of special medical groups, including developed and adapted technique of healthy walking with the elements of natural respiratory gymnastics and methods of psychophysical self-regulation;
- scientific educational and methodological support in the form of an experimental structure of practical training classes made of five parts (introductory (10 min), preparatory (25 min), training (35 min), recovering (10 min), and final (10 min)); the technique of healthy walking and its constituent, natural respiratory gymnastics; the methods of psychophysical self-regulation; the technique of continuous phased (preparatory 1st stage is associated with the learning process, special preparatory 2nd stage is related to the time of summer field studies, transitional 3rd stage comprises examination and vacation time) development and improvement of the main professionally important physical qualities (endurance, flexibility, strength, agility, speed) in curricular and extracurricular forms of physical education, providing the formation of the physical culture competency.
The significance of the results and conclusions made in the study enables to estimate their potential for application and use of the methodological and substantial materials of this work to upgrade the educational process in vocational schools, and to develop original physical education curricula and trainings for future specialists of technical profiles, that will contribute to the implementation of the new educational standards of professional education.
Conclusion. The experimental work on the implementation of the conceptual approach to the specially focused APPhT for bachelors of engineering of technical universities has proved its efficiency in formation of special professionally important physical and psychological qualities, protection and strengthening of physical health, increase of physical working capacity and training for future professional activity in the forest industry. The obtained results testify that APPhT of bachelor-engineers in technical universities contributes essentially to the solution of the problem of professionalizing future specialists by means of physical culture and enriches higher education in general.
Thanks to the science-based concept of vocational training of bachelor-engineers of the forest science profile in a technical university, the important problem of training of elite professional personnel, capable to be subjects of professional activity and to carry out innovative development of the Russian economy, was settled.
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