T.A. Fedorova, Ph.D.
Perm State Humanitarian-Pedagogical University, Perm
Key words: informatization, computer technologies, technique of sports orienteering, information environment.
Introduction. Modern society is characterized by the process of informatization. Computer technologies are being widely introduced everywhere. At the same time one of the priorities of this process is informatization of education . Nowadays, theoretical and practical training classes can be held using electronic presentation, since most explanations of the methods of execution of moves being learnt, historical notes and events, covering of theoretical questions from different areas cannot be presented to pupils within academic hours.
Information modes of training sessions lead to the increase of pupils' motivation, to development of their emotional expressiveness, create favorable conditions for gaining theoretical knowledge, and enhance the quality of education .
Increasing the requirements for education of hearing impaired children determines the need for modernization of the content of education, including supplementary education (Yu.A. Shreider, O.I. Kukushkina, I.A. Nikolskaya, D. Moores, et al).
However, the opportunities of cognitive development by means of computer technologies have been examined insufficiently in the studies relevant to hearing impaired children. So the effect of the application of computer training programs to train deaf junior teenagers on the cognitive processes such as visual perception, stability and volume of attention, visual memory, thinking, are not studied. Thus, the relevance of the study is determined by the contradiction between the importance of development of the cognitive sphere of deaf children engaged in sports orienteering, as one of the important tasks of learning, by means of information and computer technologies, and their insufficient development. It enabled to define the research problem, which is to explore the capacities of using information and computer technologies in correctional work for the development of cognitive abilities of schoolchildren with hearing impairments. The purpose of the present study was to solve this problem.
The fundamental distinction of supplementary education from basic one is that, due to the lack of tough learning standards, educators working within this system get the chance to impart knowledge and skills to their pupils in informal surroundings. Thus, the learning goal goes for creation of developmentally appropriate learning environment which would allow each pupil to display his inherent creativity, i.e. to gain the capacity to act as a creative subject of own development.
One of the essential aspects of development of a hearing impaired person is information environment which was first represented by Yu.A. Shreider (1989), who considered information environment not just as an information conductor but also as an active source affecting its participants .
Researchers report that information environment within learning activity is formed by:
– educator (who determines education program content, principles of teaching, forms and methods of organization of training process, communication style, etc.);
– institution teaching staff (who determine general requirements to pupils, keeping institution traditions alive, type of relationship between an educator and a pupil);
– government as a social institution (responsible for material support of education in general, social procurement for development of a certain knowledge system and ideology).
The way how quickly a pupil acquires knowledge depends on his individual characteristics, and it is intensified by using the resources of the information environment by means of forming a connection between a user and information resources of the environment on the real time basis .
Nowadays, theoretical and practical classes of sports orienteering can be given in the form of multimedia presentations, since most explanations of tactics of moving on an unfamiliar territory, rules of competitions and safety of classes, covering of theoretical issues from different areas are difficult to pass on to hearing impaired pupils. Demonstration tools used during learning and training sessions (slides, images, animations, video recordings) optimize the development of imagery abilities in pupils, and basing on those - the development of general ideas.
The use of computers and multimedia technologies yields favorable results when presenting new material, simulating various situations in woods, gathering necessary information on the terrain and the distance, evaluating the knowledge gained, and also enables implementing active learning methods in practice.
There are all requisite conditions at school for giving computer-aided classes: interactive whiteboards, multimedia projectors, computers.
We have developed the multimedia presentations (registration edition №23391) of theoretical sessions in sports orienteering that help increase pupils' motivation, develop their emotional expressiveness, create favorable conditions for gaining theoretical knowledge in tactics of moving through unfamiliar territory.
Materials and methods. The modeling experiment conducted in 2011/2012 years on the premises of the Territorial State Special (Correctional) Educational Institution “Boarding school for hearing impaired children, 1-2 type” of Perm Territory proved effectiveness of the designed multimedia presentations during primary training in sports orienteering. 5-6-formers took part in the experiment (18 were in CG and 19 - in EG). The important criterion of evaluation of primary training in sports orienteering is considerable increase of indices characterizing qualitative shifts in development of span and scope of attention, reconstructive imagination, visual-spatial memory, eye-mindedness and imaginative (creative) thinking. The following methodologies were used at work: Raven's Matrices; R. Amthauner test; Reiss modified test; Burdon attention test; Torrence test of creative thinking; Luria test, amended and rectified by T.V. Akhutina and L.V. Yablokova .
Results and discussion. A significant improvement of attention span results was registered in the boys from both groups. In CG it increased by 15.64%, in EG - by 34.01% (р<0,05). The girls also turned out to have improvements of attention span: it increased by 16.98% in CG and by 32.64% in EG (р<0,05). The boys and girls from EG had a more significant improvement. Learning and training sessions in sports orienteering with the use of multimedia technologies contributed to positive development of attention span.
The scope of attention of the boys from CG increased by 15.87%, from EG - by 33.58%. The girls results increased as well: by 10.80% in CG and by 26.80% in EG accordingly (р<0,05).
Thanks to the use of interactive whiteboard, combined with various tasks, the scope of attention was increased in EG.
The analysis of the dynamics of indices of pupils’ visual-spatial memory indicated that the boys from EG had more rapid increase of results. With the input data of 2.59±0.60 c.u. for the boys from CG, their results increased by 2.88±0.71 c.u. by the end of the experiment. In EG they significantly increased among the boys - from 2.62±0.16 to 3.46±0.41 c.u. (р<0,05). Similar situation is observed among the girls from CG and EG. This can be explained by the implementation of a set of complex exercises both during theoretical and practical sessions, which contributed to improvement of visual-spatial memory.
Conclusions. Multimedia presentations at training sessions were designed to address a number of educational problems, thanks to using them the effectiveness of learning was significantly improved. The advantages of the multimedia technology as a learning tool is the ability to combine logical and imaginative ways of learning information, to intensify the educational process by increasing the use of visual methods. And, consequently, it provokes an increase of the rate of comparison of maps with the terrain.
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