Major Approaches to Teaching Physical Education at School in Compliance with Federal State Educational Standard

Major Approaches to Teaching Physical Education at School in Compliance with Federal State Educational Standard

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A.M. Tikhonov, professor, Ph.D.
I.P. Golyakov, postgraduate
Perm state humanitarian-pedagogical university, Perm

Key words: Federal State Educational Standard, purpose, result, content of education in physical culture; learning activity, learning task, subject of evaluation.

The Education Act gives every teacher the right to freedom of choice and use of pedagogically proved forms, means and methods of training and teaching, development and application of author's programs and methods of training and teaching on conditions that they conform to the federal state educational standard [3]. It also imposes new requirements to the results, and, consequently, to the purpose, content and methods of teaching. Due to the fact that as a result of school studies a pupil should be capable of self-learning, the novelty of the standard of the content of physical culture education is determined by the implementation of the system-activity approach, that has been developed in domestic pedagogics, as well as a number of principles that determine the basis for the development of the learning process itself and its educational content. Change of purpose, results, approaches to education should lead to a change in the content and methods. In this regard, we face the major questions of didactics: What for to teach? What to teach? How to teach? The first question relates to the sense of teaching, the second - to its content, the third - to the forms and methods of teaching, being a part of certain educational technologies.

The purpose of the study was scientific foundation of the basic approaches to teaching physical education in schools in accordance with the federal state educational standard.

Results of the study. Creation of a man of culture is the essence of national education [6]. Nowadays the notion of "culture" is multivalent, fuzzy and has over 200 definitions only in American culturology. Nevertheless, domestic culture experts made an attempt to reach its essence.

There are two major areas of research in domestic culturology. Since the mid-60s culture was considered as a complex of material and spiritual values created by man.  It is a broadside but yet uncertain approach, as there are no precise criteria to define values of culture. The axiological interpretation of culture involves defining that sphere of human existence, which can be called a world of values. And the notion of culture can be applied to this very world according to the supporters of this concept. It appears as a grand result of man’s past activities, which is a complex hierarchy of spiritual and material entities being of high importance for a particular social organism.

The activity concept supporters consider this interpretation of the concept of culture to be limited to a certain degree. According to their opinion, the axiological interpretation restricts cultural phenomena within a relatively narrow sphere, whereas "culture is ... a dialectical process, realized as a unity of objective and subjective factors, assumptions and results." The activity approach to culture has two major directions: one considers culture in the context of personal growth; the other characterizes it as a universal property of public life.

The search for a meaningful definition of culture thus leads to understanding of generic ways of human being in the world, namely, to human activity as true substance of human history. The unity of subjective and objective, realized in activity, enables to understand the culture as "a system of extra biologically developed mechanisms, stimulating, programming and implementing human activity in the society " (E. Markaryan). In other words, culture is an "activity method" (V.E. Davidovich,

Y.A. Zhdanov), the "technological context of activity" (Z. Feinburg), which imparts internal integrity and a special direction to human activity and acts as a way of regulation, preservation, reproduction and development of all social life [2].

Various theories of the content of education (didactic formalism, materialism and pragmatism) identified differences in the domestic concepts of the content of education: a) pedagogically adapted principles of science; b) a system of knowledge, abilities and skills; c) pedagogically adapted social experience of mankind, structurally identical to human culture; d) content and result of the process of progressive changes of personal qualities; e) educational environment. Due to the system activity approach, the content of education is the pedagogically adapted social experience of mankind (practical experience). This content requires using efficient teaching methods (method of learning tasks solution, research, design and heuristic methods) in the educational process, which, in turn, makes the learning process personality-centered, as a personality is a subject of activity producing new material or spiritual product. Producing such a new product means carrying out the act of creation. Therefore, the concepts of "personality" and "creativity" are inseparable. The learning activity presupposes creativity, so a subject acquires personality traits in the process of its systematic performance [1].

The structure of learning activity is consistent with the overall structure of activity. The special consideration of learning activity showed that it consists of several interrelated components: 1) learning task (LT); 2) learning activities; 3) control action, 4) assessment action [1]. All Universal Learning Actions are formed when solving learning tasks. LT must comply with the proximal and actual development zones requirements, i.e. on the one hand, it must be so complicated so that pupils could not solve it in a common manner, but not so complex that they could not solve it together, on the other hand, solving this LT should become essential to pupils.

The purpose and the main outcome of education (ability to learn, formation of learning activity subject) is pupils’ personal development based on mastering universal learning actions, learning and exploring the world [4]. We assume that in accordance with the main objective of educational physical culture pupils should learn methods of physical culture activity providing individual use of physical exercises for their needs (good health, development of motor qualities, beautiful body, leisure activities, etc.).

We suggest considering physical culture in the system of education (educational physical culture) as a theory of physical culture activity, the object of which is physical culture activity as a system of sequential and interrelated actions on creation of physical exercise by a pupil. The system of sequential actions is assumed as obtaining personal, meta-subject and subject universal learning activities. The subject of the study in physical culture is the process of creation of physical exercise by a pupil, its performance and reflection of his completed activities (by stages or in general). Pupil selects exercises himself, performs, doses, controls, estimates, evaluates effects on him from each of them.

Physical culture as a theory of physical culture activity enables to define the correlative with science subject of teaching physical culture as an academic discipline. This is acquisition of the basics of physical culture activity in general. The subject of evaluation in accordance with the Standard should be the level of development of universal learning actions. A secondary school-leaver is a subject of physical culture activity.

 This objective can be realized, if the subject "physical culture" helps pupils to "discover" ways to determine the state of their physical health, beautiful body and ability to perform physical activities they like; methods of determining physical exercises and load to maintain and improve their health, beauty, abilities for physical activities; methods of monitoring of compliance of intermediate and final outcomes considering health, beauty and ability to exercise according to selected plan.

Pupils have to be in authors’ position to acquire the methods mentioned above. It is impossible to discover this method without structuring it. The authorship of physical movement involves formation a set of necessary skills: 1) to  assess personal physical condition; 2) to determine limits of physical abilities with respect to necessary activities; 3) to plan, construct movement sets to achieve a certain quality physical condition; 4) to formulate a problem and to request a specialist, a friend, literature; 5) monitor the correct performance of training activities aimed at plan fulfillment (to define, set criteria for monitoring and evaluating personal physical activity); 6) to reflect the  plan fulfillment.

In our opinion, these skills are the subject universal learning actions.

The content of education in this case should be the experience of creative thinking and creative activity, the method (in elementary school) has to be organization of cooperative learning activity for junior schoolchildren (first of all completing their learning tasks) using productive methods (design, research and heuristic) in comprehensive secondary school. The participants of learning activities are subjects using a learning task as an object of interaction.

Conclusion. The raised points have been experimentally tested for 13 years, resulting in the physical education curriculum for primary schools. The curriculum ensures the formation of universal learning actions, high level of motor activity, adequate level of mastering the technique of motor actions and positive dynamics of motor qualities.

References

  1. Davydov, V.V. Theory of developmental education / V.V. Davydov. - Moscow: INTOR, 1996. - 554 P. (In Russian)
  2. Culturology: study guide for students of higher educational institutions / scient. ed. by G.D. Drach. – Rostov-on-Don: Fenix, 2008. – 570 P. (In Russian)
  3. Tikhonov, A.M. Physical culture: Sample program for elementary school / A.M. Tikhonov, T.A. Polyakova, D.D. Kechkin, O.O. Volosatykh. – Perm: RCPhCH, 2013. – 23 P. (In Russian)
  4. Federal State Educational Standard: primary education. – Order on approval of the standard of primary education registered in the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation № 17785 dated December, 22 2009. (In Russian)
  5. Federal Law "On Education in the Russian Federation" (29.12.2012 № 273-FL).
  6. Khutorskoy, A.V. Modern didactics: textbook for higher schools / A.V. Khutorskoy. – St. Petersburg: Piter, 2001. – 544 P. (In Russian)

Corresponding author: tap29@mail.ru