Sports Training of Elite Swimmers with Spinal Cord Injuries

Фотографии: 

R.R. Makhmutiva, L.A. Bordukova, A.A. Strokin, candidates
E.R. Rumyantseva, professor, Dr.Biol.
L.R. Makina, associate professor, Dr.Hab.
Bashkir Institute of Physical Culture, Ufa

Key words: sports training, elite athletes with orthopedic injuries, swimming, bioelectrical activity of muscles.

Introduction. The constant growth of the number of the involved in Paralympic sports and their achievement of the leading positions at the national and world levels arouse great public interest in the development of adaptive sport. At this stage, Russia is among the leading countries developing Paralympic sport. Swimming is one of the most common sports for the disabled, and in the number of medals it is inferior only to track and field athletics. The peculiarities of sports training of elite athletes with orthopedic injuries are associated with their disabilities. The analysis of the research findings on this subject suggests that some aspects of Paralympic swimmers training are disclosed in the researches of the scientists [2, 4], but the acquired data do not fully justify the essential features of the formative factors of the sports skills of swimmers in this category.

The purpose of the study was to develop and prove effectiveness of the methodology of the differentiated sports training based on the leading dominant factors, which determine high achievements of elite athletes with orthopedic injuries to the utmost degree.

Materials and methods. The research involved 21 swimmers with orthopedic injuries, who in accordance with the international classification fall under S5-8 classes (in our study the athletes were divided into 2 groups: the ones with the central nervous system disorders and the ones with diamelia), the Russian national team and reserve team members, having the sports title of Honored Masters of Sport, World-class athletes, the rest - Masters of Sport of Russia. The athletes were aged 17-25. The research methods used in this work were as follows: analysis and summary of the specialized literature data, questionnaire, survey, psychological and pedagogical tests, neuromyography, mathematical statistics methods.

Results and discussion. Using the differentiated approach to organization of sports training in our work with elite swimmers we considered the peculiarities of their muscular performance and higher nervous activity, which were conditioned by various pathologies of the subjects.

Basing on the analysis, synthesis and summary of the preliminary experimental studies [1, 3], aimed at determining the outlines and organization of sports training with due regard to the functional characteristics of athletes, the following dominant factors, which to the utmost degree determined the achievement of high results by swimmers with orthopedic injuries, were found:

– the main physical qualities that contribute to high results in Paralympic swimming are speed characteristics (rate of movement, responsiveness, distance velocity), coordination abilities (balancing ability, motor coordination, differentiation of muscle force in time and space) and endurance (speed, coordination, general endurance);

– mental health characteristics of swimmers with orthopedic injuries. They are mostly determined by a high level of situational anxiety and emotional imbalance, however, improvement of athletic performance is pertinent to the display of such personal attributes as: interest in specific sport, diligence and commitment, discipline and ability to take stock of own capacities and actions;

– functional status of the neuromuscular system. As regards athletes with the central nervous system disorders, it is characterized by low-amplitude oscillations at voluntary muscle tension and an increase of the amplitude of muscle biopotential during their relaxation, which is directly opposite to the standard; different failures of neuromuscular conduction and trophic processes in muscles due to muscle blood flow disturbances in athletes with diamelia; pathologically enhanced growth of bone tissue and corresponding reduction of the senescent bone tissue degradation rate; increase of muscle recovery time after physical load.

Based on the results of the preliminary studies, the methodology of the differentiated sports training was developed with its procedural components being: workload parameters (Table 1), ratio of the amount of work in water of diverse power orientation (Table 2), heart rate of athletes at work of diverse orientation (Table 3); a set of psychological and pedagogical measures (designated muscular regulation and special warm-up, including breathing exercises); a set of recovery measures (individual massage programs made with due regard to current pathologies).

Table 1. Annual macrocycle optimal workload parameters for elite swimmers with orthopedic injuries, %

Workload parameters

Annual macrocycle

Pre-season

Regular season

Off-season

Amount of work on land

45-50

30-40

60-65

Amount of work in water

55-50

70-60

40-35

 

 

Table 2. Annual macrocycle ratio of the work in water of diverse power orientation for elite swimmers with orthopedic injuries, %

Water exercises of different power orientation

Annual macrocycle

Pre-season

Regular season

Off-season

General preparatory phase

Special preparatory phase

Aerobic-anaerobic

15-20

35-40

40-45

10-15

Aerobic

40-45

30-35

25-30

20-25

Compensatory swimming

30-35

25-30

20-25

60-65

 

 

Table 3. Optimal heart rate for elite swimmers with orthopedic injuries at work of diverse orientation

        Groups of swimmers      

Workload aimed at fitness improvement, HR

Workload aimed at fitness maintenance, HR

With diamelia

144-156

138-144

With the central nervous system disorders

156-174

144-156

 

The offered differentiation of sports training for Paralympic swimmers promotes better formation of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms, enabling to prevent a negative effect of stress factors during training and competitive activities.

Using the developed set of recovery measures in sports training (individual massage programs made with due regard to the current pathologies) a more accomplished level of performance of the neuromuscular system of elite swimmers with orthopedic injuries can be formed. This fact is backed up by the following:

– at the end of the experiment, the maximum amplitude of the electrical activity of the trapezius muscle of the athletes, who had been subsumed under the diamelia category, increased by 30% on average as compared to the data received at the beginning of the experiment;

– at the end of the experiment, during the voluntary trapezius muscle tension and relaxation

the indices of the athletes, who had been subsumed under the category of the central nervous system disorders, approximated the physiological standard.

Using the differentiated approach in sports training, including the developed set of psychological and pedagogical measures (designated muscular regulation and special warm-up, including breathing exercises), enables effective development of mental determination, attention span, development of balance of excitation and inhibition of the nervous system of swimmers with orthopedic injuries, as indicated by the reduced response time and number of mistakes in the "Attention evaluation" test, improvement of speed of orientating and searching eye movements and mental determination, as evidenced by the reduction of passing time and of the number of mistakes in the "Schulte-Platonov Tables" test.

In order to estimate the effectiveness of the developed methodology of differentiated sports training

based on the leading dominant factors, which determine high achievements of elite athletes with orthopedic injuries to the utmost degree, the analysis of the sports achievements was carried out after the experiment, basing on the World Championship results (Table 4). The analysis of the competition results showed that the athletes of the experimental group won 3 gold, 6 silver and 1 bronze medal. They were third in the overall medal count. 3 world records were set.

Table 4. Results of the World Swimming Championship between athletes with orthopedic injuries from the experimental group (Canada, 2013)

Swimming stroke

Class

Place

Result

Behind the leader

400 m crawl (freestyle)

S7

2

4.39,19

0,05

100 m backstroke

S7

2

1.11,79

2,13

100 m backstroke

S 8

1

1.03,32 WR

 

2

1.04,90

1,58

200 m medley swimming

SM8

2

2.23,48

0,72

100 m butterfly stroke

S8

2

1.00,75

0,15

100 m crawl

S 8

1

56,48 WR

 

3

57,82

1,34

50 m crawl

S 8

1

25,81WR

 

2

26,71

0,90

 

Comments: S – freestyle swimming, backstroke and butterfly; SM – individual medley swimming, SB – breaststroke swimming; WR – world record.

Conclusion. Using the developed methodology with the procedural components including the rational parameters of training effects in the annual macrocycle, a set of psychological and pedagogical methods and recovery methods resulted in significantly positive changes in physical fitness indices, mental and functional status.

References

  1. Bordukova, L.A. The features of metabolism in bony tissue of elite athletes with orthopedic injuries // Actual problems of athlete’s training and health protection: Collected researches (with international participation). Chelyabinsk, 2013. - P. 49-56. (In Russian)
  2. Evseiev, S.P. Experimental plans of programs of scientific and methodological support in Paralympic Sport / S.P. Evseev, O.M. Shelkov, D.F. Mosunov, I.V. Kleshnev // Adaptivnaya fizicheskaya kultura. № 2 (34), 2008. P. 35-37. (In Russian)
  3. Rumyantseva, E.R. Problems and prospects of training of elite athletes with orthopedic injuries / E.R. Rumyantseva, A.A. Strokin, L.A. Bordukova, R.R. Makhmutova // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. - 2013. - № 7. - P. 38-43. (In Russian)
  4. Rumyantseva, E.R. Physical training of athletes with orthopedic injuries: monograph / E.R. Rumyantseva, A.R. Dayanova, G.M. Yulamanova. - Ufa: BashIPhC, 2010. - 78 P. (In Russian)

Corresponding author: rumelv@yandex.ru