A.V. Sal'kov, associate professor, Ph.D.
V.D. Povzun, professor, Dr.Biol.
A.A. Povzun, associate professor, Ph.D.
V.V. Apokin, associate professor, Ph.D.
Surgut state university KhMAR-Yugra, Surgut
Key words: achievement situation, success, achievement motivation, value attitude, rating, personal achievement, ascent of personality from needs to values.
Introduction. Nowadays the problem of reforming university education, search for its value orientations, updating its contents and forms are of special importance. We believe that the aim of higher school is not only to provide professional training in the field of physical culture in accordance with modern requirements, but also to create conditions for the development of morally healthy, versatile creative personality of a student capable of constant professional and personal development and self-perfection.
This paper is dedicated to the studies of the achievement situation in student's learning activity, created by a teacher, as an educational condition, facilitating axiologization of the content of studied university courses, namely transformation of the appropriate for a student learning activity into personally important, where achievement motivation acts as a mechanism of increasing the role of student's needs to professional, social values .
We are convinced that the student's more stable value attitude to learning promotes higher level of his learning motivation, he strives more for success and considers even failure as a deliberate incentive to achieve a set educational goal.
Thanks to achievement situation, created by a teacher, a student is encouraged to active communication and interaction in the university educational environment with all subjects of the educational process. He not only gains the experience of some activity, structures his own knowledge, but also, as noted by L.S. Vygotsky, is absorbed in such an environment, which acts as a source of development, not just conditions for the development of his personality .
The purpose of the study was to determine the role of achievement situation in the transformation of the evaluative attitude into students’ value attitude to studies in the university environment.
Results and discussion. The study proved that achievement situation starts the mechanism of development of student's personality, when his personal achievement is an objective indicator of success in learning. As is generally known, the content of some subjects (especially non-core) is not personally important for many students learning in accordance with the educational programs of the specialization "Physical Culture", which results in their low achievement motivation during studies regarding the development of the content of these courses.
In this paper, based on the analysis of a number of researches [2, 4, 9] the most significant aspects of achievement situation, created by a teacher, were highlighted, which help a student to experience learning activities as components of achievement activity:
1. Student's independent achievement of result, based on mastering the success achievement technology.
2. Performance result is estimated qualitatively and quantitatively by a teacher and a student himself.
3. To assess student’s personal achievement in studies a scale is applied, within which the standard level is defined.
4. Subject of activity earns reward for the obtained result.
5. The requirements for estimating personal achievements are adequate to student’s capabilities.
Student’s attitude to learning changed after the teacher’s evaluation of the results the student had achieved. The latter were assessed on the basis of well-developed rating system of students' knowledge control. Points the student earned were recorded in the teacher’s journal and then were fixed on the stand.  Therefore, every student could learn about not only his, but also his fellow students’ achievements, which fostered the competitive atmosphere, common for athletes, which had a positive impact on the development of achievement motivation.
Doing tasks, the student got not only an assessment of his actions, but also an opportunity to better understand the purpose and the meaning of the task, its place and role in professional development as a future specialist.
At the early stages of the experimental work students treated rating as a mark and when getting three points for the done task, 78% of students considered themselves to be unsuccessful and 98,5% claimed that the marks "4" or "5" prove their success. Among them 40,2% of respondents seemed "successful in their own eyes" and 48,25% of students - "successful in the eyes of others". So we turned down the grading system, but left the five-mark rating system as basic.
Students learning in the specialization "Physical Culture" managed to get 90 points during practical studies of the physiology course. The student could achieve a maximum of 10 points per one class: for a done test task, made of 15 questions, and a laboratory work. The test showed the level of knowledge assimilation and developed skills of students, the laboratory work - the ability to apply this knowledge in practice, the level of development of students’ creative abilities, their ability to analyze and synthesize acquired information, independence and ability to persist in their opinion.
Given the fact that students’ academic performance is influenced by many factors, including individual biorhythms [7, 8], we assumed that the level of achievement motivation of university students can be one of them. However, the findings did not confirm our hypothesis. Students with both weak and strong achievement motivation showed a fairly high level of knowledge assimilation. But students, who were interested in succeeding, were qualitatively different from others when setting the educational goal and finding effective ways and means of its achievement.
This is evidenced by the following facts. About 69% of students with weak and strong achievement motivation wanted to get "bonuses", i.e. extra points that were earned in a verbal answer in practical studies or in the extracurricular time (during a consultation) and were taken into account when giving a mark. The verbal answer presupposed the possibility of giving extra points. Attempt to answer - 1 point, retelling with notes - 2 points, retelling without notes - 3 points, answer with notes using additional literature - 4 points, analysis of contradictions and explanation of the conclusion on the matter - 5 points.
Thanks to this assessment system a student could feel successful, even if he gained 2 or 3 points, since this achievement level corresponded either to the efforts applied, or student’s abilities, in other words, the level of his claims. In this case, the teacher made for the formation of student’s positive self-esteem through awareness of his own achievement as an important positive event - success.
Conclusion. Personal achievement in studies turned for a student into the value that motivated him to achieve next result, better than the previous one.
At the beginning of work students treated each particular achievement as a meaningful event, but then the combination of personal achievements preconditioned the formation of the value attitude to educational activity, they were involved in during studies in the university in general.
The achievement situation arranged by a teacher facilitated the transformation of students' attitude into the value attitude to studies. When achievement in studies was treated by a student as a success, was stabilized and constant, but not situational and necessary, the chain reaction of increase of the role of personal need to social and professional values was launched. Hence, axiologization of university education gave a goal oriented tone to the vector of personality development and the achievement situation acted an effective condition of the process.
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- Sal'kov, A.V. Achievement situation as the main condition of axiologization of university education. Actual issues of higher pedagogical education: Collected scientific papers. Iss. 2 / A.V. Sal'kov, V.D. Povzun. - Shadrinsk: Shadrinsk State Pedagogical Institute, 2006. – P. 168–171. (In Russian)\
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