Estimation of Functional State of Middle Distance Track and Field Athletes in a Year Training Cycle

Фотографии: 

G.Z. Khalikov, postgraduate
I.Sh. Mutaeva, professor, Ph.D.
Volga region state academy of physical culture, sport and tourism, Naberezhnye Chelny

Key words: functional status, complex diagnostics, hardware, physical working capacity, psychofunctional state, current functional status.

Introduction. Training of elite athletes is a versatile process of effective use of the whole combination of factors, including: means, methods, conditions, innovation technologies, ensuring proper effect on an athlete and the necessary control of the level of his readiness for some sports activity.

The analysis of scientific-methodological and specialized literature revealed that middle-distance running is distinguished by the significant growth of the volume and intensification of training loads. Their further increase can result in failure of adaptation, overtraining and pathological changes of functional systems of the body (V.N. Konovalov, 1999; J.H. Wilmore, D.L. Costill, 2001; G.A. Makarova, 2002). The above-stated promotes the conclusion that management of training of athletes lacks information on the integrated assessment of body's functional status (FS).

Long-term training loads usually provoke functional reorganization in an athlete's body. One can judge the body state in general and functional statuses in particular by the data of estimation of musculoskeletal apparatus, indices of athlete's psychofunctional, physiological states. The data obtained in the complete physical examination enable allocating possible deviations in the body's functional status (I.A. Ter-Ovanesyan, 2000; V.M. Mikhaylov, 2002; Yu.V. Vysochin, 2007; O.N. Kudrya, 2009; Yu.A. Tsagarelli, 2009).

The purpose of the study was to estimate the functional status of middle-distance track and field athletes.

Materials and methods. The studies were carried out in the educational and scientific inter-department laboratory of NCh Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education Volga region SAPCST located in Naberezhnye Chelny. A complex diagnostics of body’s FS of middle distance runners was fulfilled using the following devices: Poly-Spectrum-Sport software and hardware complex, RDK-2 rehabilitation and diagnostic complex, D&K-Test software and hardware complex and Activaciometer AC-9K software and hardware complex. The experiment contained 3 stages with participation of 30 athletes (track and field students) which after a pre-test were divided into two equivalent groups, experimental (EG) and control (CG), 15 persons in each group. The FS was estimated at every stage, and training year cycle was corrected.

Research methods: polymyography, heart rate variability with active orthostatic test, estimation of physical working capacity (PWC170 test), instant diagnosis of the FS by S.A. Dushanin’s technique, and the test “Reaction to a moving object” (RMO).

Results and discussion. At the first stage of the study PWC170 tests with physical load were fulfilled in order to determine the level of physical working capacity. There were no significant differences in physical working capacity between two groups. In the CG PWC170 equaled 1397,6±30,27 kgm/min, and relative PWC170 was 20,25±0.29 kgm/min/kg; in the EG they equalled 1376±30,27 kgm/min and 20,32±0.42 kgm/min/kg respectively (the differences were insignificant: р=0,658, р=0,889). VO2 max values in both of the groups were similar. In the CG VO2 max and relative VO2 max were 3,67±0,07 l/min and 53,85±0,43 ml/ (kg*min), in the EG – 3,59±0,07 l/min and 53,63±0,68 ml/ (kg*min), respectively (р=0,429; р=0,786).

The rate of recovery is a principal and almost absolute index to estimate adaptation to load and fitness level. The recovery dynamics during a 5 minute period was determined. In both of the groups recovery processes were similar, and difference was insignificant (р>0,05). The HR in the CG recovered as follows: 1st minute – 118,27±1,42 bpm; 2nd min – 101,07±1,58 bpm; 3rd min – 92,93±0,83 bpm; 4th min – 92,80±0,73 bpm; 5th min – 88,27±0,44 bpm. In the EG HR changed as: 1st min – 117,93±1,49 bpm; 2nd min – 100,53±1,35 bpm; 3rd min – 94,93±1,0 bpm; 4th min – 91,60±0,92 bpm; 5th min – 88,00±0,98 bpm.

The athletes’ psychofunctional state was determined by the RMO test. In the CG the precision of RMO amounted to 18,95±0,87 ms; the tendency of RMO to delay – 22,11±0,80 ms; the tendency of RMO to preact – 19,24±1,1 ms; the range – 68,67±3,22 ms. In the EG these RMO values were 17,03±0,86 ms; 22,89±0,97 ms; 21,06±0,83 ms; 69,33±3,16 ms, respectively (the differences were insignificant, р>0,05).

The heart rate variability (HRV) technique is applied to estimate regulation of physiologic functions, of general activity of the regulation mechanisms, of heart neurohumoral regulation, and of the relation between sympathetic and parasympathetic systems of involuntary nervous system. In our study a modification of this technique with active orthostatic test (AOT) was applied. In the CG the HR value in rest equaled 62,13±2,10 bpm; the results of HRV spectral analysis were the following: total spectral power (TP, ms2) – 3144,07±138,36 ms2, percentage of variations in very low frequency in the total power (%VLF) – 33,86±1,54%, percentage of variations in low frequency in the total power (%LF) – 26,18±1,02, percentage of variations in high frequency in the total power (%HF) – 36,83±1,42, tension index (TI) – 83,86±3,80 c.u., current FS – 10,47±0,47 points. In the EG these values equalled 61,47±1.81, 3286,73±167,27 ms2, 35.82±0.98%, 28,13±1,42%, 37,47±1,19%, 84,24±2,87, 10,07±0,41 points, respectively. The differences in all these values between two groups were insignificant (p>0,05).

At the first stage of HRV with AOS all values were uniform (р> 0,05): HR was 81,20±1,98 bpm; the results of HRV spectral analysis: TP – 3107,33±111,90 ms2, %VLF – 43,26±1,53%, %LF – 38,03±1,63, %HF – 19,66±0,91; К30:15 – 1,14±0,03 c.u.. In the EG these values were: 78,87±2,49; 3100,80±131,33 ms2, 42,73±1,50%, 37,33±1,91%, 18,02±0,59%.

Thus, at the first stage of the study differences between the CG and the EG were statistically insignificant, and both groups were uniform.

The FS level and athlete’s body reserve were determined by S.A. Dushanin’s technique which enables to estimate the FS without invasive methods, and to get an approximate representation of the main parameters of aerobic and energetic metabolism.

The results at the first stage were uniform for both groups (р>0,05). In the CG we obtained: anaerobic metabolic capacity (ANAMC) – 85,22±4,53%, aerobic metabolic capacity (AMC) – 241,17±6,93%, total metabolic capacity (TMC) – 322,45±8,99%, power of kreatine-phosphate energy source (PKPES) – 31,99±0,97%, power of glycolytic energy source (PGES) – 30,73±0,64%, power of aerobic energy source (PAES) – 68,96±1,23%, HR at the anaerobic metabolism level (HRaml), that characterises the energy supply of muscles by ATP aerobic synthesis, – 168,98±1,65 bpm; FS parameters: integral – 29±0,67 points, current – 28,29±0,73 points, operational – 19,87±0,34 points. In the EG the results were as follows: ANAMC – 85,59±4,35%, AMC – 240,84±6,09%, TMC – 323,77±6,63%, PKPES – 32,03±1,55%, PGES – 30,53±0,84%, PAES – 69,40±1,38%, HRaml – 169,31±1,65 bpm, FS parameters: integral – 29,13±0,32 points, current – 28,93±0,40 points, operational – 20,07±1,03 points.

The FS of neuromuscular apparatus were determined by the polymyography. At the first stage of study both of the groups showed similar results (р>0,05). In the CG the rate of relative arbitrary tension (RATr) was 6,31±0,30 kgf/kg×s, the coefficient of relative maximal arbitrary force (CMAFr) – 6,95±0,37 kgf/kg, the rate of arbitrary relaxation (RAR) – 4,42±0,27 1/s, the FS of muscles (FSm) – 10,05±0,28 c.u., the FS of neuromuscular system (FSnms) – 8.56±0,43 c.u., the FS of central nervous system (FScns) – 4,90±0,27 c.u.. In the EG these parameters equalled 6,58±0,25 kgf/kg×s, 7±0,54 kgf/kg, 4,3±0,22 1/s, 10±0,92 c.u., 8,51±0,75 c.u., 4,94±0,29 c.u., respectively.

The special training level was estimated by means of 800m and 1500m runs, ten jumps, 60m run, standing long jump. At the first stage of the study both of the groups showed similar results (р>0,05). In the CG the following results were recorded: 800m run – 2,07,5±0,01 min, 1500m run – 4,11,3±0,03 min, ten jumps – 22,26±0,86 m, 60m run – 7,92±0,16 s, standing long jump – 246,53±5,68 m. In the EG the results were as follows: 800m run – 2,06,8±0,02 min, 1500m run – 4,12,1±0,03 min, ten jumps – 22,28±0,69 m, 60m run – 7,90±0,18 s, standing long jump – 247,87±6,27 m.

Those data provided the estimation of athletes’ FS level, that helped to correct the extent and intensity of training and recovery processes.

The correction of training resulted in the significant growth of physical working capacity at the second stage of study in both groups; this growth was higher in the EG. The following parameters were measured in the CG: PWC170 – 1466,47±34,82 kgm/min, relative PWC170 – 20,93±0,21 kgm/min/kg; in the EG they were 1561,4±27,64 kgm/min and 22,22±0,37 kgm/min/kg, respectively (significant differences, р=0,41; р=0,005). In the CG VO2 max value equaled 3,81±0,04 l/min, and relative VO2 max – 54,68±0,41 ml/ (kg*min); in the EG – 3,94±0,05 l/min and 56,59±0,62 ml/ (kg*min), respectively (р=0.045; р=0,016). It should be noted that in the EG the HR parameter during 5-min recovery after physical load reduced by 5,14%, 3,44%, 3,30%, 4,66%, and 5%. By the third stage athletes of the CG showed the following parameters: PWC170 – 1513,13±24,77 kgm/min, relative PWC170 – 21,43±0,19 kgm/min/kg, while athletes of the EG had 1632,73±23,6 kgm/min and 23,66±0,27 kgm/min/kg respectively (significant differences, р<0,05). VO2 max values in the CG were 3,96±0,04 l/min (absolute) and 55,42±0,44 ml/(kg*min) (relative); in the EG – 4,48±0.06 l/min and 58,84±0,44 ml/(kg*min), respectively (р<0,05). The recovery time shortened, however athletes of the CG recovered for a longer time as compared to the EG. In the latter group a significant growth of physical working capability, increased aerobic efficiency and a gradual reduction of recovery time after physical load were detected, indicating the improvement of the general functional status. A slight increase in the PWC170 values was observed in the CG, though the recovery time grew towards the final stages of the study. Perhaps, it was explained by decreased body’s adaptation and fitness, caused by high training loads.

The RMO tests gave the following average values in the CG: precision – 23,46±1,15 ms; tendency to delay – 19,69±0,99 ms; tendency to preact – 21,46±0,90 ms; range – 68,67±3,22 ms. In the EG these values were 16,60±0,81 ms, 22,68±0,83 ms, 17,54±0,58 ms, and 57,33±2,84 ms, respectively (significant differences: р=0,00, р=0,028, р=0,001, and р=0,022 respectively). By the third stage the differences between the CG and the EG increased. In the CG we had: precision – 20,36±0,82 ms; tendency to delay – 18,41±0,87 ms; tendency to preact – 21,71±0,78 ms; range – 68,67±3,22 ms. In the EG: 11,57±0,51 ms, 23,44±1,17 ms, 16,91±0,79 ms, and 53,33±2,56 ms, respectively (р<0,05). The estimation of athletes’ psychofunctional state indicated the gradual shift of their reaction to the preact mode in the CG, that was an evidence of excitement dominance. In the EG the reaction of delay dominated, that evidenced prevailing inhibition processes in the motor zones of the CNS, and consequently, psychofunctional state improvement.

At the second stage the readings of the CG have changed: HR in rest – 58,80±1,61 bpm (decreased by 5,36%); spectral analysis: TP – 3279,20±96,12 ms2 (increased by 4,3%), VLF – 28,04±1,52% (decreased by 17,19%), LF – 21,98±1,03 (decreased by 16,04%), HF – 46,73±2,13 (20,97% increment), tension index (TI) – 87,91±3,03 (5,14% increment); current functional status – 11,07±0,56 points (5,14% increment), К30:15 – 1,16±0,01 (1,75% increment). In the EG those values were the following: 54,80±0,97 bpm (decreased by 10,85%), 3681,60±168,40 ms2(12,01% increment), 32,93±1,57% (decreased by 8,07%), 28,19±1,04% (0,21% increment), 38,03±1,93% (1,49% increment), 75,99±4,82 (decreased by 9,79%), 13,00±0,53 points (29,10% increment), 1,22±0,02% (3,39% increment) (the significance of difference were р= 0,042; 0,047; 0,034; 0,00; 0,005; 0,045; 0,014; 0,017; and 0,005 respectively). By the third stage the VHR values in the CG also changed: HR in rest – 59,93±1,88 bpm (1,92% increment), TP – 3330,27±123,02 ms2 (1,56% increment), %VLF – 32,09±1,65% (14,44% increment), %LF – 29,68±1,31 (35,03% increment), %HF – 36,37±1,79 (decreased by 22,17%), TI – 94.81±1.74 c.u. (7,85% increment), current FS – 9,67±0,48 points (decreased by 12,65%). In the EG these parameters equalled 54,33±1,47 bpm (decreased by 0,86%), 3950,20±166,60 ms2 (8,28% increment), 37,06±1,55% (12,54% increment), 25,47±1,21% (decreased by 9,65%), 42,10±2,14% (10,70% increment), 72,81±3,05 (decreased by 4,18%), 13,53±0,40 points (4,08% increment) (the significance of differences: р= 0,026; 0,006; 0,036; 0,025; 0,05; 0,022; and 0,00 respectively).

By the end of the experiments the HRV with AOT parameters significantly changed (Tab. 1).

Table 1. Heart rate variability parameters of athletes with active orthostatic test at 3 stages of the study

parameter

stage

HR, bpm

TP, ms^2

%VLF

%LF

%HF

К30/15

I

CG

81,20±1,9

3107,33±111,9

43,26±1,53

38,03±1,63

19,66±0,91

1,14±0,03

EG

78,87±2,4

3100,80±131,3

42,73±1,50

37,33±1,91

18,02±0,59

1,18±0,03

Р

0,469

0,970

0,808

0,782

0,142

0,374

II

CG

87,07±2,9

3610,80±175,9

34,40±1,32

41,92±1,73

22,59±1,07

1,16±0,01

EG

79,87±2,5

4283,93±188,9

39,64±1,82

37,31±1,26

26,26±1,19

1,22±0,02

Р

0,021

0,014

0,027

0,04

0,03

0,005

III

CG

80,47±2,7

3510,53±178,2

37,56±1,86

49,57±1,10

11,25±0,49

1,11±0,01

EG

69,47±2,1

4481,07±199,0

42,91±1,63

34,42±1,48

22,49±1,09

1,32±0,06

Р

0,003

0,001

0,039

0,00

0,00

0,002


Total spectral power grew during the study in both of the groups. In the EG the activity and reactivity factors of the parasympathetic system, HR reduction at rest and decrease in the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and TI were observed. The reactivity of the parasympathetic nervous system (К30:15) grew faster in the EG as compared to the CG.

The investigation of functional status and body’s reserves using S.A. Dushanin’s technique revealed the growth of the indices during the experiments. At the second stage the indices increased, and in the CG they were as follows: ANAMC – 86,67±1,87% (1,7% increment), AMC – 250,28±6,93% (3,78% increment), TMC – 340,41±9,3% (5,57% increment), PKPES – 33,97±0,97% (6,19% increment), PGES – 31,95±0,68% (3,97% increment), PAES – 70,94±1,31% (2,87% increment), HRant – 171,91±1,65 bpm (1,73% increment), functional status parameters: integral – 29,93±0,49 points (3,21% increment), current – 29,87±0,51 points (5,59% increment), operational – 23,60±0,87 points (18,77% increment). In the EG the results were as follows: ANAMC – 96,99±4,02% (13,32% increment), AMC – 262,55±4,35% (9,01% increment), TMC – 362,13±3,98% (11,85% increment), PKPES – 36,33±0,60% (13,42% increment), PGES – 33,87±0,63% (10,94% increment), PAES – 74,54±1,13% (7,41% increment), HRant – 175,96±1 bpm (3,93% increment); functional status parameters: integral – 31s20±0s37 points (7,11% increment), current – 31,07±0s27 points (7,4% increment), and operational – 22s27±1,19 points (35,87% increment) (the differences were statistically significant: р = 0,027; 0,033; 0,040; 0s048; 0,046; 0,047; 0,045; 0,049; 0,045; 0,019 respectively). At the third stage the increments of the parameters in the CG equalled: ANAMC – 5,35%, AMC – 0,91%, TMC – 3,6%, PKPES – 3,5%, PGES – 3,54%, PAES – 2,3%, HRant – 0,33%, functional status parameters decreased: integral – by 0.,67%, current – by 4,69%, and operational – by 10,47%. In the EG the parameter increments were: ANAMC – 2,52%, AMC –2,43%, TMC – 3,64%, PKPES – 4,13%, PGES – 6,55%, PAES – 3,34%, HRant – 0,88%;the FS parameters changed as follows: integral decreased by 0.22%, current decreased by 2,38%, and operational increased by 18,34% (the differences were statistically significant: р = 0,036; 0,012; 0,00; 0,036; 0,010; 0,002; 0,00; 0,024; 0,008; and 0,00 respectively). Therefore, significant increases of aerobic, anaerobic, total metabolic capacities, of powers of aerobic, glycolytic, kreatine-phosphate energy sources, and of HR at the anaerobic metabolism level were observed, that evidences about the heightening body’s aerobic and anaerobic potentials.

The FS parameters of the neuromuscular system grew faster in the EG, where their increments equalled: CMAFr – 10,33%, RAR – 31,55%, FSm – 12,62%, FSnms – 7,37%, FScns – 15,03%; in the CG they increased by 8,71%, 9,64%, 8,84%, 1,41%, and 2,82%, respectively. The RATr also changed positively in both groups, it decreased by 12,45% and 6,68% in the EG and CG, respectively.

At the third stage, as compared to the first one, a significant improvement of various parameters was observed in the EG: the CMAFr increased by 37,39%, the RATr decreased by 33,74%; general functional state of neuromuscular system improved (FSm – 33%, FSnms – 33,61%, FScns – 47,17%).

The parameters of special physical fitness also grew during the experiments. In the CG the results of 800m run improved by 3,2%, 1500m run – by 0,80%, ten jumps – by 1,99%, 60m run – by 5,18%, standing long jump – by 3,06%. In the EG the improvement was higher: 800m run – 3,25%, 1500m run – 1,62%, ten jumps – 1,38%, 60m run – 3,68%, and standing long jump – 1,75%.

Conclusion. A significant positive effect was established from the integrated assessment of the functional status in training middle-distance track and field athletes, displayed in the significant increase of the indices of physical working capacity, aerobic performance, psychofunctional state, contractile and relaxation behavior of muscles, functional and reserve abilities of the body, regulatory mechanisms of heart work, efficiency of integrated assessment of functional status and efficiency of competitive activity in 800 and 1500 m distance running, 10 jump, 60 m distance running, standing long jump.

Effectiveness of performances in competitions was accompanied by the growth of qualification of track and field athletes, which was more remarkable in the experimental group.

References

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Corresponding author: gaz_myas_1988@mail.ru