National Mineral Resources University «Mining», St.Petersburg
Key words: study, students, sports club, technical university, physical culture.
In modern conditions a sports club is a primary component in management of development of physical culture in technical universities. This status of the sports club in the modern period requires special attention since it needs time to find new effective solutions of the problems in the social and educational spheres.
Development and enhancement of technologies of physical education and student sports in a technical university have always been especially relevant. High technological effectiveness of manufactures which are usually located in adverse climatic conditions, requires training of specialists not only with a high level of technical expertise, but also with a high level of physical and mental health.
The letter of the Ministry of education of the Russian Federation and the Russian Committee FSO "Youth of Russia" dated 30.05.1995, "On the development of a network of physical culture and sports clubs in educational institutions of the educational system of the Russian Federation", as well as the RF law "On public associations" and other legal documents made enabled to revive university sports clubs. It became necessary for the revival of modern sports clubs to conform to the fact that the department of physical education is the basic structural unit responsible for students’ physical education and sport at a higher education institution. However, some people thought that in the near future sports clubs would be the only heir of the physical education departments, which led to the emergence of sports clubs as independent structural units. However, with the origin of the "third generation standard" this situation was clarified, namely, one issue was considered at the meeting of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation dated 01.02.2007: "On the development of a new generation of state educational standards and the gradual transition to the graded higher vocational training", which regarded the university physical education not only as an academic subject, but rather perceived it in a broader sense – as a multi-level youth subculture, including in its structure physical education, university sport, therapeutic physical training, physical recreation and applied professional physical training .
The publication of this document has ultimately made it clear that departments of physical education will remain the most important structural subdivision in a university. Due to the existing situation, three main directions for the foundation and development of sports clubs in universities were outlined, namely: sports clubs being independent structural subdivisions of a university, which staff members are engaged in the organization of mass sports and recreational activities with the assistance of teachers of the department working on a contractual basis; sports clubs being independent financial structural units of the university with staff trainers outside of the structure of the physical education department  and sports clubs being a voluntary public association of students in the structure of the physical education department, which shares the responsibility with this association for organizing and implementing mass sports, applied professional and recreational activities.
The purpose of the study was to design the concept of organizational and educational management of sports clubs in a technical university.
Materials and methods. The leading methods of the study were theoretical analysis and data generalization obtained from scientific-methodical literature; generalization of the practical experience of sports clubs managers, a survey and questionnaire of sports clubs members; mathematical and statistical analysis methods of the obtained factual material.
Results and discussion. Before considering the development trends of sport clubs at the modern stage, the historiographical analysis of the emergence and development of students’ club movement in Leningrad had been carried out. In this study the reference concerning the emergence of the first students’ sports club was identified. It was done in the work of V.V. Stolbov in 2000, where it was said that "sports clubs started appearing in major universities since 1945". The information about sports clubs at enterprises and universities was given since 1960 in the reference data from "All sports" dated 1978, as well as in research results of B.R. Goloschapov dated 2001 and 2011 .
In our opinion, the most successful search on this subject was done by A.A. Napreenko, who carried out the historiographical analysis through the work of sports organizations at different cultural institutions. He pointed out that the most important stage in the formation of students’ sports clubs was the decision made in 1930 to move from club circles to the collectives of physical culture created at plants, factories, establishments and educational institutions. Under this provision the team of physical culture is the primary and principal organization in the structure of the аmateur sports movement. In the letter dated September 10, 1935, the all-Union Council on physical culture under the USSR Central Committee appealed to all athletes of the country, indicating the necessity to concentrate all efforts on the following issues: "Political and educational work with instructors and athletes should be the primary duty of all Soviet athletes; it is necessary to deploy advanced training, increasing cultural and political literacy of instructors, teachers, senior officials and athletes be means of organizing for them days of study, sports clubs, refresher courses, special meetings etc." . Thus, A.A. Napreenko indicated the date showing it to be the real-time point of reference for the official phrase "sports club" appearing in the national press with the following obligatory indication: "as a supreme form of collective of physical culture". These instructions were implemented immediately. On September 23, 1935 the newspapers reported that "People's Commissar of health has approved the Charter of the USSR's first university sports club. The club was created under the 2nd Moscow medical Institute and was one of the first cells of the all-Russian voluntary sports society of the educational institutions of the National Health Committee".
A sports club could be opened in Leningrad State University in 1937, but it was opened only in the postwar years. At the same time, the Charter of the sports club of the P.F. Lesgaft Leningrad State Institute of Physical Culture was put together. Not until much later, the sports club of the Institute of Railway Transport Engineers was established in 1947. At the same time the sports club of Polytechnic Institute opened up. Thus, the historical and bibliographical study determined the time when the first university sports clubs appeared in Leningrad. Their dates of foundation were pointed out for the first time in historical science.
At the present stage of university sport 45 universities of St. Petersburg take an active part in it, only 17 of which are sports clubs. The history of these clubs’ appearance and development is different, but what unites them is the close relationship they have with the departments of physical education. For example, a sports club of the "Pilot" Shipbuilding University is ruled by the head of the physical education department. The experience of the ENGECON sports club, functioning as an independent financial unit, showed the complexity and the prospects of its development.
After analyzing active university sports clubs, the conclusion has been made about the possible ways of their development, namely, the three main directions mentioned above. The implementation of the first direction, when a sports club is founded as an independent structural unit with a staff of independent workers responsible for organizing sports events, is not rational for the following reason. It has been practically proven that the work of a responsible officer of such structural subdivisions as of the division of trade unions or of the Department on educational work, which would oversee the direction of the mass sports work while coordinating their work with the Department of physical education, is more consistent and efficient than in case of a group with independent structures.
The implementation of the second direction, when a sports club is founded as an independent financial structural unit of the University with regular trainers outside of the physical education department, is controversial because of the sports club’s use of the areas belonging to the physical education department. In this case, the conflicts between the two most important structures working in the filed of physical culture - the sports club and the physical education department, are inevitable and they would damage the common goal.
The third option which suggests organizing a sports club at the university is, in our opinion, the most preferred one because of the sports club being a part of the structure of the physical education department, moving in step with it in the same direction. The most important thing in this case is that in the field of physical education and sport the students’ initiative is being actively developed. It is an important and necessary factor for development and formation of a personality of future professional managers.
Conclusion. As a result we have stated the basic direction of the organizational position of a sports club in a technical university and set the goal of educational management of its activity, namely:
- the system of educational management of the operation of a sports club should be aimed primarily at solution of the statutory goals of its regulations, providing the necessary stability and controlling its efficient performance. It is to be based on the definition of sport as a social club, a voluntary association of students in the educational structure of the physical education department in a technical university, promoting their active involvement in the implementation of their need for healthy way of life, acquiring social experience  and enhancement of sports skills;
– the final goal of the organizational-education management of sports club in a technical university is to support and coordinate students' initiatives in promotion of healthy way of life, to improve physical state of trainees (students, master's degree students, postgraduates), teachers and employees, via the larger scale involvement of those who are engaged in physical culture and sport, training of athletes and their high sports achievements.
- Bogdanov, V.M. Activities of university sports clubs at present. Electronic source http://rudocs.exdat.com/docs/index-394430.html?page=20 conversion 01.10 2012 58 Kazan 2011 (In Russian)
- Nikulin, A.V., Lodkina, T.V. The conditions of effectiveness of operation of sports club in ensuring healthy way of life in the university educational environment / A.V. Nikulin, T.V. Lodkina // Modern business: relevant problems of economy, organization and management: Proceedings of the VI interregional. theor.-pract. conf. / Ed. by Dr.Hab., professor T.V. Lodkina. – Vologda, 2006. – P. 124-131. (In Russian)
- Napreenkov, A.A. Information support of the university sports club's activity / A.A. Napreenko // Physical culture of students: Proceedings of the 53rd inter-university theor.-method. conf. on physical education of students of St.Petersburg higher educational institutions / Ed. by S.S. Kryuchek. – St.Petersburg: SPbHUCT, 2004. – P. 215–216. (In Russian)
- Chase, Richard. Production and operative management. 10th ed. (+ CD) / Richard B. Chase, F. Robert Jacobs, Nicholas J.Aq. – Williams, 2007. 1184 P. (In Russian)
- Gogunov, E.N., Mart’yanov, B.I. Psychology of physical education and sport: study guide. Moscow: Academia, 2000. 288 P. (In Russian)
- Bernstein, N.A. Biomechanics and dynamic physiology / Ed. by V.P. Zinchenko. Moscow: Institute of practical physiology, Voronezh: MODEK, 1997. 608 P. (In Russian)
- Solodkov, A.S., Sologub, E.B. Human Physiology. General. Sports. Developmental: Textbook. 2nd ed., rev. and sup. Moscow: Olimpia Press, 2008. 528 P. (In Russian)
- Pegov, V.A. From analysis to synthesis / V.A. Pegov // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. - 1989. - № 10. - P. 42-45. (In Russian)
Corresponding author: Panfilio@spmi.ru