New Approaches to Construction of Technology of Teaching Motor Actions

Фотографии: 

Sh.Z. Khubbiev, professor, Dr.Hab.
St.Petersburg state university, St.Petersburg
M.A. El'murzaev, associate professor, Ph.D.
National Mineral Resources University «Mining», St.Petersburg

Key words: technology, familiarization with movement, learning movement, automatization of movement, mastering of movement, high-level abilities.

Problem situation. It is generally recognized that teaching motor actions (MA) involves three phases. Each of them gives solution of the tasks of choosing conditions, methods and technologies of teaching movements.

The common main phases of teaching motor actions are: starting learning, enhanced learning of MA, consolidation and development of movements.

The phase 1 is dedicated to teaching the basics of technique of movement. The tasks of the phase are: to create semantic and visual images of MA and the idea of ​​the way of its implementation; to teach technical elements, general rhythm of movements; to prevent or eliminate errors that occur.

The purpose of the phase 2 - to develop the skill to perform MA in compliance with technical requirements. The tasks of the phase are: to ensure awareness of laws of motions; to specify the technical parameters of movements to fit individual student; to instill the rhythm of movements; to create preconditions for the variability of movements.

The phase 3 was aimed at the transformation of motor ability into a skill. The tasks of the phase are: automate MA; individualize technique of MA; provide variability of MA in view of conditions of its implementation [1].

The advantage of this approach to learning MA - clear structure of learning MA. Its shortcomings are: the name and the essence of the first phase make it harder to estimate its completion and the possibility of conversion to the 2nd stage (familiarization and initial practice were united); training is not aimed at the development of an appropriate competence.

V.V. Mironov et al [2] offer another approach to learning MA, assuming that the phases of formation of MA are: familiarization; practice; mastering. In this case, familiarization is a single level of learning MA. Other authors [3] allocate the following phases of learning MA: familiarization; simplified practice; mastering of movement in conditions close to game; use of movement in the game. We can say that the 4th phase is focused on the formation of competence, but it is limited by the conditions of sports game. Commenting on the views of German specialists in sports, V.N. Platonov [4] notes that, in their opinion, technical training involves relatively independent phases: creation of the first idea about MA and formation of the target to learn; development of the skill to perform the basic structure of MA; managing to master MA; skill stabilization; formation of variative skill. This approach also does not generate competence.

The position of E.P. Il’in to solve this problem is interested. He identifies the phase of formation of high-level skills [5], which is consistent with the competency building approach to learning. Today, attempts are being made to develop motor competences [6], which is quite justified, since the competence formed in high school was formulated in a generalized sense. Physical education and sport (PES) teachers find it difficult to understand specific problems of their own and their students. In our opinion, specification of the core PES competence - the condition of technologization of the process of formation of MA.

The main idea of ​​the study. The technology of teaching MA is to include familiarization, learning, automatization, all-round enhancement, development of the ability to adequately include new MA in types of sports activity, development of the ability to independently learn new MA and use them in life and at work.

Whilst creating this technology it is important to understand the universal technology of equipment manufacture and involving it at different phases of the process flows, which rise in compliance to the law – 1:10:100:1000 [7]. By analogy, when teaching MA a teacher is to take big efforts and much time to familiarization with MA. Proceeding from the researchers' long-term observations of the practice of physical culture and sport the focus on such aspects is lacking at secondary and higher schools. The student's personality does not adapt to qualitative mastering of the teaching material and results in formation of the "lack of the culture of physical culture", causing more inputs for teaching MA in the future.

Algorithmization of the new technology of learning MA. The phase of familiarization is aimed at developing in a student a system of images of MA: mental, visual, sound, proprioceptive, tactile, perception of space, time, dynamics of movements respectively: psychological [11], physiological [10], biomechanical [9] and pedagogical [2, 4] laws. These images become regulators of development of MA. The phase takes place as follows: terminologically correct name of MA (creating mental image); exemplary display (creating visual and sound images); explanation of technique of MA (enrichment of mental image); explanation of technique of MA (integration of mental and visual images); telling about the history of MA, about human capabilities in MA (stimulation of developing MA); showing the impact of MA on the development of human personality, strengthening of his health (increased motivation for learning); showing the value of MA in human life and work (teaching need to learn MA); trying MA (identifying readiness to learn, form the proprioceptive image). Transition to the 2nd phase of learning is possible when students show their readiness in respect to each of the stipulated points.

The 2nd phase is dedicated to formation of the ability to technically correctly perform MA. There were provided: understanding of the patterns of movements (development of mental image); clarification of MA in its technical parameters in view of student’s personality (consolidation of the regulatory role of visual, proprioceptive and sound images); formation of the rhythm of movements (development of the regulatory role of the sound image); creating preconditions for the formation of variability of MA (development of integral image of movements).

In the harmonious and coordinated ensemble each level of the brain has its own function [9] under the laws of physiology [10], activating the cortical centers for solving a motor task, setting free degrees of freedom, optimizing the ratio of excitation and inhibitory processes, relieving tensions, speeding and improving accuracy of MA.

Parts of MA are learnt so that the modules could be easily joined with other parts, forming integrity. Otherwise, "parts can not be assembled into a whole" [11]. The time to learn depends on the requirements to technique of MA and motor experience of engaged ones. The transition to the 3rd phase is possible in case of the general scheme of movements; supervisory role for the student’s consciousness of movements [1]; showing signs of readiness to convert ability into skill.

At the 3rd phase motor ability is transformed into skill: unity and automatism in MA are achieved; by-movements disappear; muscle tension is optimized; mastering of movements is combined with their effectiveness; individual style of MA is displayed; the dynamic stereotype is developed; reactive forces turn from obstacles into a factor of intensification and correction of MA, additional degrees of freedom arise [9]. The transition to the 4th phase is possible in case of compliance of movements with the above [1].

At the 4th phase, the focus is on the variability of tasks, structure, content and conditions of execution of MA. There are achieved stability of the basics of technique of MA, lability in detail in view of student’s individuality; willingness of MA to fit into different types of sports activity. So we can turn to the 5th phase of learning MA.

At the 5th phase the ability to adequately match different types of human activity is developed.

The 6th phase is associated with the formation of the ability to independently develop MA and apply it in everyday life and work. Its successful completion was crowned by complete mastery of competence in MA.

Conclusion. The stated material is to be estimated as a statement of problem questions, which needs specialized researches to be made on modernization of the conditions of the theory and methodology of teaching a man to move.

References

  1. Theory and methodology of physical culture: textbook / ed. by Yu.F. Kuramshin. Moscow: Sovetsky sport, 2010. 464 P. (In Russian)
  2. Theory and organization of physical training of troops: textbook for cadets of ARIPC. 6th ed. / Ed. by V.V. Mironov. St.Petersburg: ARIPC, 2006. 594 P. (In Russian)
  3. Zheleznyak, Yu.D., et al. Sports games: Technique, tactics, methods of teaching: textbook of 2nd ed., stereotyped. Moscow: Academia, 2004. 520 P. (In Russian)
  4. Platonov, V.N. The system of training athletes in Olympic sport. General theory and its practical applications. Moscow: Sovetsky sport, 2005. 820 P. (In Russian)
  5. Il’in, E.P. Psychophysiology of physical education: study guide. Moscow: Prosveschenie, 1983. 223 P. (In Russian)
  6. Zav'yalov, D.A. Theory of key motor competence // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. 2002. № 12. P. 2-4. (In Russian)
  7. Chase, Richard. Production and operative management. 10th ed. (+ CD) / Richard B. Chase, F. Robert Jacobs, Nicholas J.Aq. – Williams, 2007. 1184 P. (In Russian)
  8. Gogunov, E.N., Mart’yanov, B.I. Psychology of physical education and sport: study guide. Moscow: Academia, 2000. 288 P. (In Russian)
  9. Bernstein, N.A. Biomechanics and dynamic physiology / Ed. by V.P. Zinchenko. Moscow: Institute of practical physiology, Voronezh: MODEK, 1997. 608 P. (In Russian)
  10. Solodkov, A.S., Sologub, E.B. Human Physiology. General. Sports. Developmental: Textbook. 2nd ed., rev. and sup. Moscow: Olimpia Press, 2008. 528 P. (In Russian)
  11. Pegov, V.A. From analysis to synthesis / V.A. Pegov // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. - 1989. - № 10. - P. 42-45. (In Russian)

Corresponding author: Panfilio@spmi.ru