Speed and Strength Training as a Base of Special Physical Training in Complex Martial Arts

Фотографии: 

E.A. Bavykin                           
National Mineral Resources University (Mining University), St. Petersburg

Key words: complex martial arts, physical training, endurance.

Introduction. It is well known from the fundamentals of the theory and methodology of sports training that in order to develop special endurance one is to use competitive and special conditioning exercises. Moreover, it should be clearly understood that when choosing such exercises one is to follow the important rule: on the one hand, special conditioning exercises should be similar in the form and content with competitive ones, and on the other hand, - exceed competitive activity in some parameters to create a more stressful and differential impact on various systems of the body, providing the highly efficient target competitive activity [1]. In complex martial arts, where a fight can be held in the standing position and on the ground; the competitive activity is determined primarily by the level of functional fitness of muscles of the pectoral arch [2].

The purpose of the study was to develop and experimentally justify the methodology of development of speed and strength qualities as the basis of special physical training.

Materials and methods. 7 wrestlers from different weight categories were the subjects of the experiment. The experiment was carried out in National Mineral Resources University (Mining University), St. Petersburg. Wrestlers were tested to determine the level of development of physical qualities. The evaluated parameters included level of maximum strength, speed and strength endurance and recovery rate after training “to muscular failure”.

Table 1. Results of the test of speed and strength abilities before the experiment

Name

Weight

Pull-ups

Jumping squats

(30 sec)

Barbell squat (1RM)

Deadlift  (1RM)

Clean and Jerk (1RM)

1

A-v

74

22

32

90

110

70

2

K-a

74

23

33

110

120

80

3

K-v

84

20

32

100

120

82

4

S-n

74

18

34

90

110

70

5

D-n

84

17

30

112

120

80

6

U-v

85

19

29

120

150

80

7

M-v

103

15

28

130

130

80


In the power endurance test athletes performed exercises maximum number of times with the weight 70% of rep max.

We also estimated athletes’ recovery rate after the given load, HR was measured immediately after the load, in 1, 2 and 3 minutes, the data are shown in Table 2.

Results and discussion. Speed and strength abilities and special endurance can be developed using specific high-intensity methods in combination with the interval method of training. Exercises are to be selected in accordance with the dynamic stereotype principle.

Exercises should show the structure of competitive activity in more detail. Exercises are performed in a circle and without rest. The intensity is 70% of max.

Exercise intensity is from 80 to 100%. The number of reps in one set is from 2 to 5. Number of circles is 15-20. The rest interval between circles is 1 min or HR less than 120 bpm.

Thanks to a small number of reps an athlete can stay "fresh" throughout the workout, which is good, as the volume of such work can be very high. The weight 70% of the maximum was selected purposefully, such intensity enables the athlete to increase his endurance, but not gain muscle mass in large volumes, in addition, it helps to avoid injuries in most cases, as the working weight is not critical.

Table 2. Results of the test of strength endurance and recovery rate after training "to muscular failure" before the experiment

Exercises

A-v

K-a

K-v

S-n

D-n

U-v

M-v

Deadlift

weight/number of reps

77/20

85/25

85/20

77/22

85/25

105/15

90/20

HR immediately

146

148

152

148

152

154

152

HR in 1 min

128

126

134

132

136

132

134

HR in 2 min

116

114

112

108

112

108

118

HR in 3 min

100

102

100

100

102

94

102

Barbell squats

weight/number of reps

62/23

77/25

67/19

67/22

77/15

85/15

90/20

HR immediately

148

134

154

148

152

152

156

HR in 1 min

132

112

136

124

134

132

138

HR in 2 min

118

104

118

108

112

108

112

HR in 3 min

100

100

100

96

100

92

98

Clean and Jerk

weight/number of reps

50/14

56/12

57/12

50/15

56/12

56/12

56/10

HR immediately

134

134

122

128

130

132

134

HR in 1 min

118

118

112

116

114

112

114

HR in 2 min

100

102

102

92

92

100

100

HR in 3 min

96

98

94

86

88

96

94


In order to solve the set tasks we selected exercises and classified them in the following way.

Table 3. Training load distribution during 1, 3, 5 weeks.

Training day №1

Training day №2

Barbell squats

Deadlift

Clean and Jerk

Jumping squats

Pull-ups

Dips

 

During the second, the fourth and the sixth weeks speed and strength training load will be restorative and limited to two exercises, namely barbell squats and deadlift. The number of sets is from 3 to 5, the number of reps is from 3 to 5, weight - 70% of 1RM.

A control test was made at the end of the experiment to check our hypothesis.

Table 4. Results of the test of speed and strength qualities after the experiment

Name

Weight

Pull-ups

Jumping squats

 (30 sec)

Barbell squat (1RM)

Deadlift (1RM)

Clean and Jerk (1RM)

1

A-v

74

27

35

108

132

80

2

K-a

74

28

40

132

144

87

3

K-v

84

26

38

120

145

90

4

S-n

74

22

37

108

132

82

5

D-n

84

25

30

134

145

90

6

U-v

85

27

29

120

167

92

7

M-v

103

22

33

165

170

92


The test results indicate the high level of increment of the absolute force in basic exercises, along with the increased level of shoulder strength endurance.

Table 5. Results of the test of strength endurance and recovery rate after training "to muscular failure" after the experiment

Exercises

A-v

K-a

K-v

S-n

D-n

U-v

M-v

Deadlift

weight/number of reps

77/28

85/35

85/33

77/32

85/32

105/31

90/35

HR immediately

148

150

150

148

150

156

148

HR in 1 min

114

118

116

118

116

120

116

HR in 2 min

94

96

92

92

94

98

96

HR in 3 min

88

84

83

84

84

88

88

Barbell squats

weight/number of reps

62/35

77/37

67/33

62/30

77/26

85/25

90/35

HR immediately

148

152

154

150

152

150

152

HR in 1 min

132

128

126

122

118

120

134

HR in 2 min

98

96

98

96

96

96

96

HR in 3 min

84

82

84

82

84

84

88

Clean and Jerk

weight/number of reps

50/18

56/20

57/22

50/20

60/18

60/20

60/20

HR immediately

116

114

122

114

116

118

116

HR in 1 min

102

104

102

102

108

104

108

HR in 2 min

94

94

90

92

90

90

94

HR in 3 min

84

84

82

84

84

84

84


It is to be marked that the mode of exercises in week microcycles did not presuppose a significant gain in absolute force, as the intensity of athletes’ training did not exceed 70% of the repeated maximum. The repeated method was not applied in the training process for targeted development of maximum strength.

A significant increment was in the indices of strength endurance and recovery rate after the load. We associate it with the fact that exercises performed in its structure are basic, functional and in case of a small number of reps per one set the total amount of work is quite high, which together have a great adaptation effect.

Conclusions.  The methodology we suggested induces to believe that the chosen means and methods promote simultaneous increase of the indices of absolute strength, special endurance and recovery rate.

The number of reps - from 3 to 5, the number of circles - from 15 to 20, the rest interval between circles - 1 min. Thanks to this form of work the athlete stays "fresh" and can cope with big training load, and due to the basic structure of exercises, together they have a great adaptation effect.

References

  1. Nikulichev, A.A. The technology of development of special endurance of professional boxers. / A.A. Nikulichev // Uchenye zapiski universiteta im. P.F. Lesgafta. – 2012. – № 10 (92). – P. 120-125. (In Russian)
  2. Seluyanov, V.N. Physical training of combatants (sambo and judo) / V.N. Seluyanov, D.V. Maksimov, S.E. Tabakov. – Moscow: TVT Divizion, 2011. – 160 P. (In Russian)

Corresponding author: Panfilio@spmi.ru