Ideomotor Training in Darts in Context of Correlation of Ideas and Efficiency of Learning Dart Throwing Technique

Фотографии: 

E.A. Izotov, associate professor, Ph.D.
National Mineral Resources University (Mining University), St. Petersburg

Key words: darts, educational, training exercise, quality of ideas, dart throwing technique.

Ideomotor training is mental visualization of the technique of movement. Ideomotor training is commonly divided into three main functions of visualization including: programming, training and regulatory. The first of them is based on the visualization of an ideal movement, the second - on the visualization facilitating skill development, the third - on the visualization of possible ways of correction, movement control and relations of single elements. Ideomotor training is most effective for improvement of speed of movement and accuracy.

The purpose of the study was to determine the interrelation of the quality of visualization and efficiency of mastering the dart throwing technique in the game of darts.

Materials and methods. The quality of visualization of the dart throwing technique during ideomotor training was realized using a survey (n=102). The experiment was carried out in 2013 on the faculty of physical education of National Mineral Resources University (Mining University). The questionnaire represented a bipolar form of the scale type. 7-point scales were applied. Certain visualization on a specific training session was considered the date of the experiment. More than 300 measurements (102 athletes ´ 7 training sessions) were obtained. To improve the accuracy of indices of quality of visualization average quality rates were fixed in the summary table.

Dart throwing skills during training exercises were examined using three methods: pedagogical observation (using video recording), expert evaluation (by a trainer) and athlete's self-report. The unified scale, the so-called chart for evaluation of the dart throwing technique (by E.A. Izotov), was used for all three techniques. Only generalized technical indices were fixed in the summary table.

Results and discussion. The intensity and variety of the indices of the quality of visualizations are shown in Table 1. During exercises aimed at visualizing the darts throwing technique at the target, it was found that the most difficult is to achieve vividness of these visualizations, because their vividness is the least pronounced. Completeness of visualizations on the dart throwing technique is the most expressed, but the maximum value of the variation coefficient was fixed in this index. This fact indicates that although all in all dartsmen obtain very complete ideas, not all of them manage to do it.

Table 1. The quality of athletes’ visualizations of the dart throwing technique (n = 102)

Quality of visualizations

Х

(points)

S

(points)

V

(%)

Vividness of visualizations

3,41

0,36

10,81

Clearness of visualizations

3,78

0,31

7,99

Completeness of visualizations

4,32

0,68

14,99

General quality of visualizations

3,76

0,21

4,98


Among 102 darts players, practicing ideomotor training, there are both dartsmen who obtain high degree of completeness of visualizations and athletes who obviously cannot do it. The low coefficient of variation of the index of the general quality of visualization calls attention to itself (4,98%). This can be explained by the fact that this index was obtained by defining the arithmetic mean, when this index tended to equalize.

The indices of pronouncedness of the dart throwing technique do not differ significantly from each other. Their mean value is equal to 6,35 points ± 0,35 (out of 10 possible), that is expressed slightly above the average (Table 2).

Table 2. Indices of mastery levels of the dart throwing technique (n = 102)

Dart throwing technique

Х

S

V

1. Starting position of athlete’s body parts

2. “Stationary” and “free” feet placement

3. Overall steady body position

4. Angle of inclination of the body to the target

5. The set of shoulders precisely on the line of throw

6. Position of the apparatuses

7. Position of the dart in the “throwing” arm

8. Fixing of the arm with the dart in the starting position

9. Position of fingers on the dart

10. Position of darts in the “not throwing” arm

11. Preliminary actions before the throw (back swing)

12. Movement of body parts during the back swing

13. Stability of the body during the back swing

14. Elbow position perpendicularly to the floor

15. Fixed elbow position during the back swing

16. Moving the arm with the dart

17. Moving the arm in the non-throwing” arm

18. Consistency of movements

19. Position of body parts and the apparatus

20. Position of athlete’s body parts

21. Position of the apparatus

22. No pressing down of the dart with a finger

23. Fluency in changing from back swing to throw

24. Back swing along the trajectory of the throw line

25. Optimality of force applied when throwing

26. Spinning of the dart

27. Stability of the body when throwing

28. Complete straightening of elbow when throwing

29. Keeping the direct line when releasing the dart

30. Active hand movement when throwing the dart

31. Timely release of the dart

32. Preferable motion speed of the dart

33. Fixed body during the dart release

34. Relaxed hand movement during the release

35. Steady body after the dart release.

6,38

6,22

6,37

6,55

6,61

6,71

6,61

6,60

6,84

6,83

6,69

6,44

6,58

6,82

6,80

6,52

6,52

6,77

5,98

6,35

6,53

6,59

6,57

6,49

5,77

6,09

6,05

6,17

5,71

5,95

6,19

5,73

5,88

6,10

5,53

1,98

1,68

1,78

1,24

1,45

0,60

0,72

0,85

0,41

1,16

1,40

2,12

1,84

1,70

2,11

1,30

1,24

2,17

1,55

1,52

1,37

2,04

2,17

2,40

1,85

1,45

1,81

1,73

1,08

1,37

0,87

0,92

1,47

2,07

0,91

31

27

28

19

22

09

11

13

06

17

21

33

28

25

31

20

19

32

26

24

21

31

33

37

32

24

30

28

19

23

14

16

25

34

13

 

Coefficients of variation for each of the indices are sufficiently high, although most of them are subject to the normal distribution law (less than 33 percent). The average variation is 23,5%.

The interrelation between the indices of throwing technique is as follows (Table 3).

Table 3. Significant interrelations of the indices of the dart throwing technique (n = 102)

 

Technical indices

Technical indices

 

3

14

18

19

22

23

24

25

27

28

29

31

34

3

×

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14

+

×

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18

++

 

×

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19

+

+

++

×

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22

+

 

 

+

×

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23

 

 

++

 

 

×

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24

+

+

 

 

++

+

×

 

 

 

 

 

 

25

++

 

 

++

++

+

+

×

 

 

 

 

 

27

+

+

+

 

++

+

++

++

×

 

 

 

 

28

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

++

×

 

 

 

29

 

++

 

++

++

 

++

 

+

 

×

 

 

31

 

+

+

+

 

 

 

+

+

++

 

×

 

34

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

++

×

k

7

6

5

7

7

4

7

7

10

4

5

7

2

Note:

k – number of significant interrelations.

1) + – positive correlation at р ≤ 0,05

(at n = 102 ρ = 0,31);

2) ++ – positive correlation at р ≤ 0,01

(at n = 102 ρ = 0,40).

The element of stability of the body when throwing is most closely and with a large number of relations interconnected with other technical elements (index 27). And it is no accident. In case of phased implementation of the technique, this index of it inherently is always associated with those elements that preceded it and the elements it precedes.

It is interesting that the most complex elements of the throwing technique which are the main and most importantly - affected by ideomotor training are the most closely interrelated. Thus, the main elements of the dart throwing technique are highlighted, which should be studied such as: position of body parts and the apparatus; optimality of force applied when throwing; stability of the body when throwing; no pressing down of the dart with a finger; keeping the direct line when releasing the dart; timely release of the dart; relaxed hand movement during the release of the dart to the target.

The quality of athletes’ visualization of the dart throwing technique determines the quality of 18 elements of the dart throwing technique (Table 4). Completeness of visualization of the technique of this exercise has the greatest effect.

Table 4. Significant interrelations between indices of quality of visualization of the dart throwing technique and the quality of the technique itself (n = 43; at р ≤ 0,05 r = 0,31; at р ≤ 0,01 r = 0,40; at р ≤ 0,001 r = 0,50)

Elements of the dart throwing technique

Quality of visualization

vividness

precision

completeness

Generally

Consistency of movements

 

 

0,54

0,32

Stability of the body

0,34

0,31

 

 

Back swing along the trajectory of the throw line

 

0,33

0,36

0,41

Elbow position perpendicularly to the floor

 

 

0,37

 

Starting position of body parts

0,36

0,39

 

0,41

Fixed elbow position during the back swing

 

 

0,34

 

Overall position of athlete’s body

 

 

0,31

 

Straightening of elbow when throwing

 

0,32

0,35

 

Position of the apparatus

0,42

 

0,39

 

Fluency in changing from back swing to throw

 

 

0,45

0,34

Position of body parts and the apparatus

0,38

 

 

 

Optimality of force applied when throwing

 

 

0,41

0,32

Stability of the body during the back swing

 

 

0,32

 

No pressing down of the dart with a finger

 

 

0,38

 

Timely release of the dart

 

 

0,33

 

Active hand movement when releasing the dart

0,44

0,35

0,48

0,52

k-number of significant interrelations

5

5

13

6

This is most clearly seen in relation to coordination of dartsman's movements (ρ = 0,54; p ≤ 0,001). Next (in descending order): active hand movement when releasing the dart (ρ = 0,48); fluency in changing from back swing to throw (ρ = 0,45); optimality of force applied when throwing (ρ = 0,41; p ≤ 0,01).

The index of quality of visualization generally determines the quality of execution of the following six technical elements (in descending order): active hand movement when releasing the dart (ρ = 0,52; p ≤ 0,001); back swing along the trajectory of the throw line (ρ = 0,41; p ≤ 0,01); starting position of athlete’s body parts (ρ = 0,41; p ≤ 0,01); fluency in changing from back swing to throw (ρ = 0,34; p ≤ 0,05); consistency of movements (ρ = 0,32; p ≤ 0,05); optimality of force applied when throwing (ρ = 0,32; p ≤ 0,05).

Conclusion. When working to improve the quality of the visualization of the dart throwing technique, one can expect its real improvement in these elements. Herewith, one is to take into account and use the reserves for enhancement of a large number of elements of the dart throwing technique in a game of darts by improving the quality of their visualization in general and integrity of these visualizations.

References

  1. Belkin, A.A. Ideomotor training in sport / A.A. Belkin. – Moscow: Fizkultura i sport, 1983. – 128 P. (In Russian)
  2. Khanin, Yu.L. The problems of psychomotor training in the foreign sports psychology / Yu.L. Khanin, N.B. Stambulova, P.M. Kos'yanik // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. – 1989. – № 3. – P. 52-54. (In Russian)

Corresponding author: Panfilio@spmi.ru