Motivation of University Students in the Sphere of Physical Culture and Sport

Фотографии: 

A.A. Kabanov, Ph.D.
National Mineral Resources University “Mining”, St.Petersburg

Key words: students, motivation, organization of classes, behavioral pattern.

Introduction. In Russia the year 2013 was declared crucial in respect to university sport. At the same time the scientific and technical progress, being one of the reasons for hypodynamia, requires from future specialists high qualification and high working capacity. Students, especially at the initial training phase, are the most vulnerable among young people, because they face many difficulties associated with the increase in the learning load, hypodynamia, relative freedom of college life, problems in social and interpersonal communication. Numerous studies show that sports activity among young people is clearly insufficient at present [2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13, 15 et al]. In this context studies of interests and needs of modern young people in the sphere of physical culture and sport, development of methods of motivational stimulation of their motor activity are acquiring great importance and relevance.

The purpose of the study was to examine the ways of stimulation of motivation to physical education and sport classes.

Results and discussion. The value system influences directly the formation of the motivational structure of the personality of a student as a subject implementation of his inner choice and therefore on the basis it is being formed on: fashion, social environment, education, etc., i.e., the values ​​the community is offering to a person [1, 6, 8, 10].

The process of formation of the interest in physical education and sport classes is not a single-step, but a multi-stage process, starting with the first simple health-related knowledge and skills and up to profound knowledge of theory and methodology of physical education and intensive training.

So we have to make a detailed analysis of the main needs caused by the physical activity motivation. Puni distinguishes three groups of such motives: motion needs, needs to manage student’s responsibilities, needs to do sports [14].

The motivational-value component reflects the actively positive emotional attitude to physical culture, the formed need for it, the system of knowledge, interests, motives and convictions, will power aimed at practice and cognitive work. Motivation is the main component in the effective fulfillment of any activity, including physical culture and sport.

Tests and qualifying standards sometimes conflict with human skills and abilities. The personal intrinsic motivation and interests in certain kinds of physical and sport activity depend not only on theoretical knowledge, motor skills and abilities, which can be obtained in the sufficient amount, but also on many biological, anthropometric, psychomotor and psychological personality characteristics, which are congenital and cannot be influenced.

The big difference between much higher results in elite sport and average athlete’s results can influence beginners’ self-esteem especially before they can feel the joy of muscular tonus after physical load, and can make them just wingside spectators or at best, fans of their idols in their favorite sport.

Physical education occupations help to solve or at least optimize the problems mentioned above, besides, regular exercises are an effective method of improvement of young people’s value system, morals and healthy way of life [4].

So, taking into consideration the revealed motives to be engaged in physical culture activities and actively using the individual approach, paying attention to different types of students’ personalities, the attitude to physical culture, personal preferences, and also factors that hamper students in doing sports, optimal forms and ways of organization of classes are to be designed, which correspond to students’ interests to the maximum. Besides traditional physical culture and sport activities we have to use the whole range of the newest directions in development of sport - including all kinds of popular sport games: mini football, mini water polo [9, 12], futsal, streetball, floorball, beach football and volleyball and so on, as well as completely new sports like step, fitness, fitball, sport rock’n’roll, cheerleading, various kinds of martial arts, mountain bike riding and other new cycling sports. Teachers will have a huge potential to be creative working on necessary modernization of higher educational system, developing new methodologies for all applied innovations on any subject. The technologies involving modern technical achievements are considered the most effective for young people [10, 11]. Systematic training sessions guided by skilled teachers, as well as training aimed on special muscle groups in a chosen sports specialization, provide higher sport results, and thus keep up the strong motion motivation of young people.

Conclusions. According to scientific and methodological literature, motivation is defined as a set of determining behavior factors, a combination of psychological reasons of human behavior, its beginning, direction and activity, i.e. motives. The basic functional load on personality’s motivational structure is formation of behavioral pattern for a specific person. Motivation comprises human needs influenced by life values system and is included in the range. It is a special state of a personality being motivated to do physical activities, aiming to achieve an optimal level of physical fitness and work capacity. The motivational value component reflects active positive emotional attitude to physical culture, the formed need for it, the system of knowledge, interests, motives and convictions, will power aimed at practice and cognitive work.

According to the findings, students are lacking the formed need for individual physical culture occupations.

Based on the conducted studies, changes and improvements are to be introduced to the organization of physical education classes in order to enhance students' motivation to them. Classes organized this way have a complex effect on the body, promote the development of physical, mental, moral and volitional qualities, endurance, mutual assistance, are a great alternative to conventional physical education classes and stimulate the interest in physical culture and active way of life.

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Corresponding author: Panfilio@spmi.ru