Formation of Healthy Way of Life of Technical University Students during Physical Education

Фотографии: 

N.A. Zinov'ev
National Mineral Resources University “Mining”, St.Petersburg

Key words: healthy way of life, physical culture, students, technical university, valeological-educational support.

Introduction. The problem of healthy way of life among young students was considered in many works, but students of humanitarian universities become mentioned in most of the researches, whose curriculum contains valeological subjects. Very few researches were dedicated to healthy way of life of students of technical universities, the results do not provide the common data, since they were carried out with male or female students of the same course of study [1, 3].

A way out from the set problem situation is development and introduction of various programs of formation of healthy way of life in the university educational process. But the traditionally organized process of university physical education fails to completely solve the task of involving students in recreational activities [2]. Hence, the idea on the necessary transformation of the system of physical education on the valeological base is just in time.

The purpose of the study was the experimental validation of efficiency of the model of valeological-educational support of physical education classes for students of technical university.

Materials and methods. As a result of the study the model of valeological-educational support of physical education classes for students of technical university was developed.

The basic principles of valeological-educational support for students at physical education classes are:

1) innovations (educational process modernization) - directing students’ attention to modern knowledge and techniques in the field of physical culture and healthy way of life in general, as well the use of new means of influence - online resources and social networks, in particular "Vkontakte" (teacher's personal page for promotion of healthy way of life and advising students on that issue);

2) dialogical nature of the educational process - considering students’ needs and interests concerning healthy way of life and physical culture and the use of feedback;

3) variability of the educational process - in relation to physical education classes and healthy way of life (there is no "tight" program of healthy way of life formation, options of its correction);

4) optimal load - valeological-educational support should not have forms that increase the educational load and reduce the amount of students’ motor activity;

5) cooperation - a teacher should be available for counseling – full-time and extra-curricular (via social network) regarding healthy way of life;

6) personal development – stimulation of independence, reflexivity and activity of students in developing their healthy way of life.

The model of valeological-educational support of physical education classes includes two modules: general valeological (general issues about various aspects of healthy way of life) and sports valeological (increase of the competency level and activity of students in the field physical culture).

Means and methods of practical implementation of these modules are also divided into two ways.

The first way is to stimulate students' motivation and activity in relation to physical education. It includes the following:

1) Creation of favourable conditions for physical education classes at university, including: variability of forms of education (its options) - for example, a student can choose conditioning classes, gym or combat sports (boxing, judo) classes as obligatory classes; a variety of physical education classes (for example, the replacement of traditional exercises in the pool, change of the exercise program);

2) Consideration of students’ interests and needs in the field of physical education and sport (using questionnaire specifying the most interesting kinds of physical culture for students);

3) Introduction (informational and practical) of students into modern types of physical culture and fitness (e.g., Pilates, various types of yoga, martial arts - Tae-Bo, self-defense, etc.).

Another way is actually the valeological-educational support of physical education classes, which includes the following aspects:

1) Informing students on various aspects of healthy way of life ("Ten minutes of valeology" at the beginning of each lesson);

2) Drawing students’ attention to online resources on valeology (due to poor availability of relevant literature and low level of students' interest);

3) Advising students - both offline and online - on healthy way of life;

4) Demonstrate the standards of healthy way of life on the example of physical education teachers (this aspect requires good physical shape combined with the high level of valeology awareness).

The technology of valeological-educational support of physical education classes can be represented as a series of consecutive interlinked stages. The first stage is diagnostic. Testing of various components of healthy way of life of students is carried out during this stage in order to determine the most "problem" areas. In addition, students are questioned to reveal their interests and preferences in physical culture. The second stage is organization. The essence of this stage is to correct the basic curriculum on physical education (taking into account students’ interests within the existing possibilities) and the technology of valeological-educational support (based on the identified "problem" areas in students' way of life) according to obtained data. The third stage is the main one (or "work"). Based on the results of diagnostics of healthy way of life students develop their individual programs of improvement of their healthy way of life (in any form), which are reviewed and adjusted by teachers, if necessary. The fourth stage is monitoring of obtained results. There are two forms of monitoring - "intermediate" (at the end of semester) and "final" (at the end of the first year). It includes re-studying of parameters of students’ healthy way of life and receiving feedback from them (using questionnaire).

The practical implementation of the model of valeological-educational support of technical university students at physical education classes was carried out in the first year of education (since it is the most difficult period for students in terms of adaptation).

Two groups of subjects were involved in the educational experiment: the first - experimental group (120 people) consisted of those who visited the majority (80%) of physical education classes within the implementation of the model of their valeological-educational support and the second one - the control group (140 people) of those who attended traditional physical education classes of the basic program. Upon completion of the experiment (2 months after) the parameters of healthy way of life were re-studied in both of the groups of students.

Results and discussion. The study showed that most of the parameters of healthy way of life have changed in a positive direction (Table 1 and 2). Due to all the measures most of the indicators have reached their highest values. The variability of the indicators has decreased; hence most of the students had positive values of healthy way of life.

Table 1. The values ​​of the indicators of healthy way of life components among technical university students.

Components of healthy way of life

Experimental group

Control group

Before the experiment

After the experiment

Before the experiment

After the experiment

Cognitive

6,71±1,67

8,55±1,03

6,73±1,62

6,82±1,7

Emotional

7,64±1,26

8,62±1,12

7,68±1,3

7,56±1,45

Motivational

8,29±1,15

8,82±1,0

8,3±1,19

8,34±1,25

Conative

7,32±1,23

8,3±0,99

7,29±1,25

7,34±1,22

Praxis-related

6,35±1,15

7,45±1,12

6,33±1,18

6,38±1,15

Integral indicator

7,41±1,19

8,34±1,06

7,26±1,14

7,29±1,2

Significant differences of healthy way of life components have occurred among the subjects of the experimental group after their participation in the pedagogical experiment. The attitude towards healthy way of life has been improved (t=2,18; р≤0,05), the degree of readiness to healthy way of life has been increased (t=2,09; р≤0,05), as well as the amount of real activity related to healthy way of life principles implementation (t=2,03; р≤0,05). The values of integral indicator have also been increased to reliable level of significance (t=1,99; р≤0,05).

Table 2. The values of the indicators of healthy way of life elements among the students of technical university.

Healthy way of life elements

Experimental group

Control group

Before the experiment

After the experiment

Before the experiment

After the experiment

Adherence to a regime

7,1±1,18

7,25±0,97

7,21±1,21

7,2±1,25

Proper rest

7,27±1,28

7,3±1,18

7,3±1,25

7,32±1,2

"Proper" diet

7,41±1,64

8,47±1,42

7,31±1,69

7,32±1,72

Physical activity

6,44±1,77

7,55±1,61

6,47±1,72

6,45±1,7

Lack of addictions

7,65±1,89

8,6±1,74

7,62±1,9

7,66±1,83

Hygiene

8,81±0,88

9,24±0,87

8,82±0,98

8,78±1,02

Health security

6,9±1,32

8,17±1,25

6,95±1,33

6,95±1,37

Self-regulation

7,08±1,32

8,34±1,16

7,06±1,35

7,04±1,29

Integral indicator

7,41±1,19

8,34±1,06

7,26±1,14

7,29±1,2

Also as a result of experiment the indicators of healthy way of life elements among the students of experimental group have been improved. Five of nine indicators have changed on a reliable (95%) level of significance. So, the values ​​of following indicators of those students who passed through the technology of valeological-educational support of physical education classes have been increased reliably: physical activity (t=2,34); health security (t=2,28); proper diet (t=2,14); self-regulation (t=2,09); lack of harmful addictions (t=2,01). Identified positive changes are typical for most of the students. At the same time, the students in the control group have had no significant changes occurred during specified period.

Conclusion. The introduction of the technology of the valeological-educational support of physical education classes of technical university students was proved to facilitate the improvement of a set of indices indicating healthy way of life being led.

The most remarkable results of the practical implementation of the model of the valeological-educational support of physical education classes of technical university students are positive changes as the most important points of view of the structure of healthy way of life and its effect on students' social adaptation.

References

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