Specifics of Structural Interaction of Personality and Culturological Factors in Gender Differentiated Representatives of Various Sports and Sports Disciplines

Фотографии: 

T.V. Artamonova, associate professor, Ph.D.
FSEI HPE "Volgograd State Academy of Physical Culture", Volgograd

Key words: culturological parameters, classification of groups of sports, personality sphere factors, gender type.

Introduction. In modern conditions, sports specialists are increasingly indicating the efficacy of further investigation of this phenomenon in the socio-cultural approach mode [3, 4, 5]. Sport cannot be called the same nowadays. It is dynamic, it is evolving and changing under the influence of culture, structurally rearranging the athletes' personal characteristics themselves. [1]

This process is reflected not only in the change of leadership positions in the global arena, but also in the trend towards the feminization of men’s and masculinization of women's sports. [2] There is a so-called gender socialization of the individual in sport.

Unfortunately, there are still many professionals who continue to follow conservative concepts in explaining the causes of good and bad performance in competition without taking into account the changing social and culturological circumstances of sports contest and who continue to place ambiguous demands to athletes’ personality. The question of a particular approach to athlete’s individual preparation for an important contest remains open.

In this regard, a study was conducted aimed at identifying interaction peculiarities of the personality sphere components and culturological parameters in gender-differentiated athletes from various sports classification groups.

Methods and organization of the study. To determine the subjects’ gender type a standard "masculinity / femininity» (IS) test was conducted according to Bem S. [6]. The test respondents were classified into four groups: masculine women (MW), feminine women (FW), masculine men (MM), feminine men (FM).

Sports were considered in the classification based on the type of interaction between athlete rivals in the competition [5]: antagonistic type (sports in which a rival responds the athlete’s action with counteraction), synergistic type (sports in which a rival responds to the athlete’s action with similar action), autonomous type (sports in which a rival responds to the athlete’s action with the preliminary autonomous action).

The study involved 770 athletes (335 women and 435 men) engaged in sprint, middle distance, hurdle running, swimming, canoeing, football, basketball, handball, volleyball, boxing, taekwondo, judo, long, high and triple jump, pole vault, javelin throwing, shot put, weight lifting, artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, acrobatic gymnastics.

The subjects were representatives of the Russian athletics team, Volgograd "Caustic" SC, Volgograd Children and Youth Sport Schools No7, Volga Basketball Club "Volzhanin-GES", students of Volgograd Olympic Reserve School, students of Volgograd State Academy of Physical Culture.

To find and evaluate cultural peculiarities in different classification groups of sports and sport disciplines G. Hofstede's model was used, according to which, in compliance with a certain system of measurement, the culture of each country has its specific characteristics. [7].

The author singles out five universal categories, and their degree of manifestation may serve as a differential culturological marker. These include: power distance; individualism / collectivism; masculinity / femininity opposition; uncertainty avoidance; long -term/short-term orientation.

In accordance with the selected parameters a test questionnaire was developed comprising 62 questions to identify the culturological characteristics of athletes practicing various sports.

16 independent and psychologically individual personality characteristics were determined in each group by using  R. Cattell’s 16PF test. The selected factors are distributed by R. Cattell in three areas: intellectual, emotional and volitional and communicative.

Results and discussion. It was found out that the percentage of gender-differentiated athletes engaged in different sport classification groups is markedly different (Table 1). However, masculine athletes prevail in all subject groups.

Table 1.The percentage of gender-differentiated athletes in different classification groups of sports and sport disciplines (%)

Classification group of sports and sports disciplines

Gender Identity

ММ

FM

МW

FW

Autonomous

38

12

25

25

Antagonistic

55

22

11

12

Synergistic

31

14

24

31

To determine the interdependence of parameters under study the correlation analysis was carried out. The results showed that there is no the uniqueness in the force of interaction of personal factors and cultural parameters of gender-differentiated athletes (Table 2).

Personality factor groups

Sports classification groups

 

Autonomous

Antagonistic

Synergistic

 

ММ

FM

MW

FW

ММ

FM

MW

FW

ММ

FM

MW

FW

Adequate self-esteem

0

1

2

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

2

(MD)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Intellectual

1

2

1

1

2

1

1

3

0

0

0

0

(B, M, Q1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emotional-volitional

3

2

3

4

10

6

2

3

4

7

4

0

(C,G,O,I,Q3,Q4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Communicative

3

6

3

5

8

6

3

2

5

1

8

4

(A,H,Q2,N,F,E,L)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

7

11

9

11

21

14

6

9

9

9

13

6

Thus, feminine athletes have greater number of reliable associations in autonomous groups as compared with the masculine ones. 7 significant associations were found  in masculine men group (1 - with intellectual sphere indicators (Q1), 3 - with emotional and volitional indicators (G, Q3, Q4) and 3 - with communicative sphere indicators (N, F, L)), 11 significant dependencies – in a feminine men group (2 - with intellectual sphere indicators (Q1, M), 2 - with emotional and volitional indicators (G, O), 6 - with communicative sphere indicators (L, F, E, N, Q2) , 1 - a measure of the adequacy of self-esteem (MD)), masculine women displayed 9 significant associations (1 - with intellectual sphere indicators (B), 3 - with emotional and volitional indicators (C, Q4) and 3 - with communicative sphere indicators ( L, F, H), 2 - with an adequate self-esteem indicator (MD)), while feminine women athletes showed 11 interdependencies (1 - with  intellectual sphere indicators (B), 4 - with emotional and volitional indicators (C, G, I, O), and 5 - communicative sphere indicators (L, E, F, H), 1 - with a self adequacy indicator (MD)).

The number of significant associations in men is clearly predominant in antagonistic sport disciplines. 21 interdependences were found in masculine men (2 - with intellectual sphere indicators (Q1), 10 - with emotional-volitional indicators (C, G, I, Q3, Q4) and 8 – with communicative indicators (L, N, Q2, H , A), 1 - with the adequate self-esteem indicator (MD)), 14 significant associations were identified in a group of feminine men (1 - with the intellectual sphere indicators (B), 6 - with emotional and volitional sphere indicators (G, O, I, Q3, Q4) and 6 - with communication indicators (L, E, F, N, H, A), 1 - with a self adequacy indicator (MD)), 6 in the  masculine women group (1 – with intellectual sphere indicators (Q1) , 2 - with emotional and volitional (I, Q3) and 3 - with communicative sphere indicators (L, F, Q2), and 8 significant relationships were found among feminine women athletes (3 - with intellectual sphere indicators (Q1, B), 3 - with emotional and volitional indicators (Q3, Q4), and 2 - with communicative sphere indicators (Q2, H), 1 – with adequate self-esteem indicator (MD)). At the same time the so-called "spectacular" representatives of their biological gender (masculine men and feminine women), the density of interaction indicators of personality factors and culturological parameters is higher.

In the synergistic sports it is difficult to separate the dependence on gender type or sex factor. Here, men of different gender types displayed the same number of significant relationships (9 each) (MM: 4 - with emotional and volitional indicators (O, I, Q3) and 5 - with of communicative sphere indicators (E, F, N, A); FM: 7 - with emotional and volitional indicators (C, G, O, Q3, I, Q4), and 1 - with communicative sphere indicators (A), 1 – with adequate self-esteem indicator (MD)). 6 significant relationships between personality factors and culturological parameters were identified in feminine women (4 - with communicative sphere indicators (E, N, Q2), 2 – with adequate self-esteem indicator (MD)), and 13 significant associations between parameters under study were found in the masculine women group (4 - with emotional and volitional indicators (G, O, Q3), 8 - with communicative sphere indicators (F, N, H, A), 1 – with adequate self-esteem indicator (MD)).

In regard to women one can observe the same trend in autonomous and antagonistic sports - the factor interaction density is higher in the feminine type, while there are more significant associations in masculine women athletes practicing synergetic sports disciplines.

The most pronounced interaction between culturological and personality indicators was found in feminine men and feminine women engaged in autonomous sports (11 each), masculine men - in antagonistic sports - (21), masculine women -in synergistic sports (13).

At the same time it was found that communicative sphere factors are more dependent in synergistic and antagonistic disciplines (18 and 17 respectively), factors of emotional and volitional sphere - in antagonistic disciplines (21). The factor of "highly normative behavior” has the greatest number of significant associations with culturological indicators in masculine men (G), "restraint – expressivity” communicative factor is particularly important with masculine women (F), "subordination - dominance" communicative factors (E) and "restraint – expressivity” (F) - with feminine men, while "adequate self-esteem» indicator - with feminine women (MD).

Conclusion. The identified differences in the personality and culturological structure of the athletes practicing autonomous, antagonistic and synergistic sports disciplines suggest, first of all, that the pedagogical approaches to the organization of training in the given athletes’ classification groups should be different not only for males and females, but also for the representatives of various gender groups. Furthermore, the study of this type allows to:

- competently design the training process within the classification group of certain gender type athletes;

- target athletes to sports more appropriate for them;

- develop specific programs of psychological and pedagogical feedback for athletes of different classification groups of sports and sports disciplines identified by gender type.

- predict the development of various sports in a particular region in accordance with the existing culturological differences.

References

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  4. Cherkashin, A.V. The national system of Olympic training: definition, core factor and functioning characteristics / A.V. Cherkashin, P.V. Cherkashin // Uchenye zapiski universiteta im. P.F. Lesgafta. – 2009. – № 11 (57). – P. 117-122. (In Russian)
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Email address: artamonova-70@bk.ru