Integrated Approach to Organization of Training Process with Female Fitness Club Members of First and Second Periods of Maturity

Integrated Approach to Organization of Training Process with Female Fitness Club Members of First and Second Periods of Maturity

ˑ: 

A.N. Legeyda, postgraduate
N.N. Schemenok, postgraduate
V.N. Seluyanov, professor, Ph.D.
Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPhC), Moscow

Key words: women of first and second periods of maturity, motor activity, static-dynamic exercises.

Introduction. Man of the XXI century pays more attention to his appearance and health. Physical culture occupations have become a part of the image of a modern man. Monotonous single-type exercises are being replaced by new ways of keeping fit.

The close correlation of physical working capacity and state of health and way of life, nature and volume of daily motor activity was proved in numerous researches (N.A. Aghajanyan, 1983; G.L. Aponasenko 1988; V.K. Balsevich, 1988; L.P. Matveev, 2004; A.A. Viru, 1988; O.A. Ivanenko, 2002; I.V. Muravov, 1989, et al).

However, the sphere of knowledge in remedial gymnastics is underdeveloped. The nature of exercises being performed, the response of the cardiovascular system (CVS) and the hemogram composition are the main objects of scientists’ research nowadays. It promoted the hypothesis of our research.

Hypothesis. Rational planning of fitness training for women of first and second periods of maturity should include 2 static-dynamic training sessions based on the system "IZOTON" developed by Seluyanov V.N. and 2 cyclic training sessions with the power at the level of aerobic threshold. This very combination of physical exercises will lead to an improvement in the CVS and hemogram indicators.

Methodology. A microcycle is arranged by the principle of combination of power and aerobic workouts. The first day was dedicated to power training based on the principles of the IZOTON fitness system. When doing static-dynamic exercises those involved had to feel burning and mild pain. This is because the blood flows badly through an always strained muscle, which causes a reaction of anaerobic glycolysis even in oxidative muscle fibers, which in turn provokes an accumulation of hydrogen ions (V.N. Seluyanov, 2001). Attainment of this effect indicates the activation of the body's endocrine system and production of elevated hormone concentration (D.V. Popov, 2007).

The second workout was performed next day with alternating load at the level of anaerobic (AnT) and aerobic (AeT) thresholds. Such training can be arranged with any of cardio machines. The AnT level was achieved jogging or briskly walking for 10s-3min before women felt some discomfort, then the tempo decreased to the normal walking pace for 2-5 min, which corresponded to the AeT level. The volume and intensity of loads are selected, taking into account individual capabilities of those involved.

As it is considered in the theory and methodology of physical education, a micro-cycle should consist of two parts: training and recovery. The next two days were rest. It is known that the synthesis of 50-70% of protein takes 2-4 days based on iRNA, produced during strength training. Thus, the combination of two described microcycles in a week is considered rational. However, overtraining is not excluded in the case with untrained people, especially women. In order to avoid this effect 2-4 more recovery microcycles are introduced, which include aerobic training sessions only.

Women of the first and the second periods of maturity, members of fitness clubs, were involved in the educational experiment. The total of the subjects in the experiment was 35 women. Later they were divided into two groups: control and experimental. The control group consisted of 15 people, the experimental - 20. The subjects in the experimental group followed the methodology of integrated physical training, we offered, combining strength training with aerobic one. The control group was engaged in fitness aerobics. Training sessions lasted 6 months. The subjects were tested at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. The functional state was measured using step test and MAP test, anthropometry was performed and fat and muscle mass were determined by Mateyko, hemogram was defined in a drop of blood using ACCU-CHEK portable meter testing equipment.

Statistical processing was performed using the software package MS Excel. The programs used were as follows: General statistics and Student’s t-test for related and unrelated samples.

Results and discussion. The results of the evaluation of physical fitness and health of subjects before and after the educational experiment are adduced in Table. There were no significant differences in the indicators of the control and the experimental groups before the experiment. An improvement of aerobic abilities was marked in the control group after the educational experiment, while the experimental group had speed-strength fitness and aerobic indices improved, along with hemogram. The pilot version was proved to be more effective, as confirmed by significant differences in all parameters.

Table. Changes in the indicators of physical working capacity and the state of the cardiovascular system after the experiment.

Parameters

Control group

Experimental group

Before-

Before Cg-Eg

After-

After Cg-Eg

Before

After

р

Before

After

р

р

р

 

Х      

σ

Х         

σ

Х   

σ

Х           

σ

Weight, kg

76    

8,2

72     

7,6

<0.05

75

8,1

69

8,2

<0.01

>0.05

<0.05

Fat mass, %

35  

6,6

30     

5,6

<0.05

34

6,5

25

6,6

<0.01

>0.05

<0.05

Muscle mass, %

28   

4,4

29     

4,5

>0.05

29

4,3

34

4,6

<0.01

>0.05

<0.05

MAP, watts/kg

6,3    

1,1

6,4    

1,3

>0.05

6,4

1,0

7,3

6,3

<0.05

>0.05

<0.05

MOC ml/kg/min

27,0  

3,2

29,5  

3,4

>0.05

26.2

3,1

33.0

3,3

<0.05

>0.05

<0.05

AeT,

ml/min/kg

11    

2,1

12     

2,0

>0.05

12

2,0

17

2,1

<0.05

>0.05

<0.05

AnT, ml/min/kg

18    

2,5

19     

2,4

>0.05

19

2,4

29

2,3

<0.01

>0.05

<0.05

HR AeT

144  

6,6

142   

6,5

>0.05

138

6,2

145

5,9

>0.05

>0.05

>0.05

HR AnT

168  

7,0

170   

7,2

>0.05

165

6,8

175

6,6

>0.05

>0.05

>0.05

Number of abnormal sphygmograms, %

28    

 

10

 

 

33

 

8

 

 

 

 

Frequency, Hz

5,9   

0,7

6,3   

0,8

>0.05

5,8

0,8

6,4

0,9

>0.05

>0.05

>0.05

Dissipation, %.

61   

2,3

63    

3,1

>0.05

59

2,2

61

3,0

>0.05

>0.05

>0.05

Viscosity, %.

88    

4,3

75    

4,4

<0.05

85

3,9

58

4,1

<0.01

>0.05

<0.05

LDLP, mmol/l

4.1  

0.3

3,8   

0,3

>0.05

4.0

0,3

2,5

0,3

<0.01

>0.05

<0.05

HDLP, mmol/l

1,25 

0,1

1,42 

0,1

<0,01

1,32

0,1

1,55

0,1

<0.01

>0.05

<0.05

Conclusions:

1) The state of the cardiovascular system improved both in the experimental and in the control groups, which is proved by the result of reduced number of abnormal sphygmograms, reduced viscosity of the aortic compression chamber (ACC).

2) Blood lipids improved in both of the groups. The high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, also known as "good" cholesterol, increased and the low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, also known as "bad" cholesterol, decreased.   

3) The indicators of physical working capacity increased greatly in the experimental group: the 15% increment in the maximum alactate power (MAP), the 30% increment in the oxygen consumption at the AeT and AnT levels.  

4) Changes occurred in the body composition of the subjects in both of the groups. Body weight decreased significantly (p<0,05). However, in the control group body weight of the subjects decreased due to the adipose tissue, and their muscle tissue increased, in addition to reduced fat tissue (p<0,05).

References

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Corresponding author: shulenkova-l@mail.ru