Empirical Interpretation of Standard Features of Students’ Motor Fitness

Фотографии: 

E.D. Gryazeva, associate professor, Ph.D.
V.N. Egorov, professor, Ph.D.
Tula state university, Tula

Key words: typology, classification features, motor fitness, physical qualities, students.

Introduction. Optimization of physical loads during studies on physical culture is one of priority directions in settling the problem of protection and promotion of health of young students. In the presence of versatile approaches to solving the recreational tasks of physical education special place is assigned for the typological approach as a method of scientific cognition, based on the fragmentation of the systems of objects and their classification by type. The use of this method is stipulated by students' individual characteristics and the need for systemized description and clarification of their multiple motor parameters [4].

Typotechnologies of motor fitness of schoolchildren and students are represented in the works of many authors [1, 2, 3, 5], who consider that versatile constitutional human typologies provoke in practice the variety of approaches to allocation of typological features of the examined contingent, which finally is seen in the information value of the findings. The autonomous study of the typological features without strict orientation to pupils’ constitution is believed to help in improving the accuracy of detection of typological features of students’ motor fitness.

The purpose of the study was to define the typological features of students’ motor fitness based on the clustering method.

Materials and methods. Clustering of the experimental data, assuming the quantitative processing, synthesis of the examined indices and fixation of steady signs of their similarities and distinctions underlie the empirical typology. We studied the typological characteristics of students’ motor fitness using six motor tests: shuttle run 10×10 m; standing long jump; sit-up for 30 seconds; hang with arms shortened on the bar; angle body and 1000 meter distance running. The total number of 1-2 year students in the study was 2491 people, including 1173 girls and 1318 boys.

Results and discussion. During the review of the attribution and determination of the priority of design of clusters, detecting a sharp rise in the value of the criterion of consolidation we have found that the best solution is partitioning of the multitude of basic characteristics of students’ motor fitness into five types. The statistical characteristics of each of the five types are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Statistical characteristics of types of motor fitness of girls and boys

Type №

Stat. characteristics

SR, s

SLJ, sm

Sit-ups, number of reps

HB, s

AB, sm

R1000, s

Girls

1

М±σ

29,43±1,40

176,85±14,0

24,59±3,57

32,97±11,64

14,72±7,11

280,76±17,2

Frequency ratio

0,53

2

М±σ

30,27±1,29

161,10±13,0

23,13±3,24

11,27±11,72

15,15±6,56

320,78±18,3

Frequency ratio

0,27

3

М±σ

30,76±1,50

165,36±10,6

24,57±3,64

23,31±13,84

13,05±6,44

369,89±11,0

Frequency ratio

0,10

4

М±σ

28,98±1,37

203,22±10,0

25,33±2,29

31,00±16,26

13,77±4,94

337,22±13,7

Frequency ratio

0,05

5

М±σ

32,02±1,17

129,62±5,52

20,25±3,37

2,25±2,54

10,00±6,27

378,37±24,5

Frequency ratio

0,05

Boys

1

М±σ

26,59±1,63

242,07±12,1

27,06±3,60

41,18±11,00

11,66±7,48

224,79±22,3

Frequency ratio

0,55

2

М±σ

27,45±1,71

211,48±10,6

25,08±3,58

26,67±10,85

9,49±6,53

237,64±28,6

Frequency ratio

0,24

3

М±σ

27,31±2,06

219,00±9,46

27,33±3,00

60,05±8,74

11,00±7,73

224,31±18,6

Frequency ratio

0,10

4

М±σ

26,60±1,70

257,36±12,5

29,33±2,86

67,45±11,44

17,81±6,03

216,73±22,0

Frequency ratio

0,06

5

М±σ

27,18±1,71

238,72±6,86

25,31±2,47

12,63±8,43

10,54±9,26

237,68±22,2

Frequency ratio

0,05

Note: SR - shuttle run 10 × 10 m; SLJ - standing long jump; SU - sit-up; Hg - hang with arms shortened on the bar; AB - angle body; R1000 - 1000 meter distance running.

The analysis of the frequency ratio of types in this array of students’ motor fitness showed that its ratio was almost the same for girls and boys. More than 50% of the total number of students surveyed belonged to the first type. The attributes of the second type are observed in 27% of cases in girls and 24% in boys. The frequency of the last three types of motor fitness of students is much smaller compared with the first two and ranges from 5% to 10%.

The attributes of types of students’ motor fitness are as follows:

The first type - in girls almost all levels of physical fitness are within the upper limit of the average age norm. The only exceptions are the results in the spine exercise, who are characterized by average values; boys and girls’ motor characteristics correspond to the upper limits of the age norm, along with due indices in the flexibility test.

The second type – girls’ results in shuttle run, standing long jump, sit-ups and bent orward are within the lower limits of the norm. Given the proper values ​​in the flexibility exercise minor delays in motor development are observed in hang on the bar and 1000 m distance running. The values ​​of characteristics of static and aerobic endurance match the indices of the zone of moderate hypodeviations; the boys’ results in only two motor tests do not raise doubts in comparison with the proper values ​​- shuttle run and angle body. The indices of 1000 m distance running are within the lower limit of the norm. The lack of motor development (moderate hypodeviation) can be marked in test tasks that characterize the level of development of strength endurance of shoulder and abdominal muscles. Low indices (lower limit of moderate hypodeviation) are observed in the jumping exercise.

The third type - girls at normal age values ​​in sit-ups have weak motor development in the remaining five motor characteristics. The results in shuttle run, standing long jump, hang on the bar and angle body are close to the lower limit of the norm. The results in the 1000 m distance running are in the area of pronounced hypodeviations; boys have high enough indices in the hang on the bar and low in standing long jump, which in comparison with the average values ​​can be considered as expressed hypodeviation and moderate hyperdeviation, respectively. The indices in running exercises, as well as exercises for abdominal muscles and flexibility of the spine are consistent with the average level of physical condition.

The fourth type - girls at moderate and pronounced hyperdeviations in the level of speed-strength qualities, with average values ​​in the level of flexibility of the spinal column, strength endurance of shoulder and abdominal muscles, there is a pronounced hypodeviation in 1000 m distance running - in aerobic endurance exercise; boys’ motor fitness is characterized by high and average levels of development of individual physical qualities. The results of boys in standing long jumps, sit-ups, angle body and 1000 m distance running tend to moderate hyperdeviation, hang with arms shortened on the bar - expressed hyperdeviation, the indicators in shuttle run are close to the upper limit of the norm.

The fifth type - all motor characteristics of girls are below the limit values of the age norm​​. Depending on the area of hypodeviation results in standing long jumps and 1000 m distance running should be considered as extremely low, shuttle run and hang on the bar - low, sit-ups and angle body - below the average; as for boys, along the standard compliance of results in running and jumping exercises, in flexibility tests the feature of motor fitness is expressed and moderate hypodeviations in the levels of development of strength endurance of shoulder and abdominal muscles, respectively.

The findings suggest that both internal typological similarity and internal typological difference are observed in the level of development of individual physical qualities of students.

The internal typological similarity is marked:

  • in girls and boys of the first type, where all indices of physical fitness are within the upper limit of the average age norm;
  • in girls and boys of the second type, where all motor characteristics are either close to the lower limit of the norm, or have moderate hypodeviations;
  • in girls of the third type and boys of the fifth type, where hypodeviations are marked in the level of development of one physical quality along with general normal age compliance of motor development.

Internal typological distinction is typical:

  • for girls and boys assigned to the fourth and third types, respectively, where an imbalance is observed in the level of speed-strength qualities and endurance. Girls have low level of endurance along with the sufficiently high level of speed-strength qualities. Boys, on the contrary, have hyperdeveloped endurance along with the lack of development of speed-strength qualities.
  • or girls and boys assigned to the fifth and fourth types, respectively, where a diametrically opposite level of development of motor characteristics is observed. All levels of physical fitness of girls are below the limit values ​​of age norms and are in the range of variation in hypodeviation from moderate to pronounced. Unlike girls, boys’ motor fitness is characterized by high level of development of individual physical qualities.

Conclusion. Proceeding from the findings, the typological image of students’ motor development is more extensional and diverse, which reflects much information having been adduced in sources. The detected typological features of students’ motor fitness indicate the need to reconsider specific standard requirements in motor tasks and make changes in the standardization of physical loads within the university studies on physical culture.

 

References

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  2. Levushkin, S.P. Physiological substantiation of physical training of schoolchildren aged 7–17 with different somatotypes: abstract of doctoral thesis (Biol.) / S.P. Levushkin. – Moscow, 2005. – 48 P. (In Russian)
  3. Ponomarev, A.A. The technology of differentiation of power training of schoolchildren in view of typological features of body build and biological maturity: abstract of Ph.D. thesis / A.A. Ponomarev. – Volgograd, 2006. – 23 P. (In Russian)
  4. Son’kin, V.D. Individual-typological approaches in physical education of schoolchildren and students/ V.D. Son’kin // Modeling of sports activity in an artificial environment (stands, training devices, simulators): (Proceedings of the conf.). – Moscow, 1999. – P. 191–195. (In Russian)
  5. Usol’tseva, S.L. Actualization of dominant physical qualities as the way to improve the students’ motor fitness level: abstract of Ph.D. thesis / S.L. Usol’tseva. – Yekaterinburg, 2006. – 23 P. (In Russian)

 

Author’s contacts: leontyeva72@mail.ru