V.N. Egorov, professor, Ph.D.
J.L. Venevtseva, professor, Dr.Med.
Tula state university, Tula
Key words: integrated approach, psychophysical state, structural elements, structural components of vital activity, young students.
Introduction. Today there is a lack of complete and unified definition of the integrated approach to educational studies, its essence and structural components. Some authors explain the lack of the homogeneity when giving a specific definition to a concept under study by its extensionality and multidimensionality, and intensive theoretical development of the idea of integrity and consequently versatility of set ideas on it along with new aspects arising in this methodological idea [2, 3, 4].
In the area of protection and promotion of students’ health a variety of parameters reflecting the features of the psychophysical status and single components of vital activity are used as structural components of the integrated approach. Generally, this variety is based on the conceptual framework of studies of physical, mental and social components of human health .
The purpose of the study was to reveal the peculiarities of socialization and hygienic realities of young students, to form needs, interests and motives of its involvement in physical education and sports activity in view of the integrated approach.
Organization and methods. The experimental work has been carried out for 8 years at the Department of Physical Education and Sport and the Health Center of Tula State University. The total number of the studied 1-2 year students at the age of 17-20 was 8625 people. The range of research methods included questionnaires, medical and statistical analysis, anthropometric measurements, motor tests, methods of functional diagnostics (mathematical analysis of heart rate, acupuncture points diagnostics).
Results and discussion. As a part of sociological research it was initially assumed that due to the present conditions of political and socio-economic reforms in the country, changes in the social consciousness of people, their political, spiritual, moral and material values, the process of socialization of students acquires its certain specificity. In our opinion, the most distinctive and socially important features of modern young students include: relative satisfaction with their position in their parental family, their living conditions and daily life; predominantly neutral existence in the public life and educational environment; formal approach to learning and uncertainty towards the full use of the received knowledge in terms of future professional activity; contradictory opinions and limited knowledge in addressing issues of the social, economic, moral and sexual nature, as well as maintaining and strengthening their health; tolerance to bad habits and optionality to comply with the basics of healthy way of life.
Negativity of certain social characteristics of students to some extent intersected with the identified features of the needs-and-motivation sphere of students in sports activity. First of all, it could be seen in students’ attitude to physical training. During their university studies 60% of students considered studying this particular subject, as well as many others, a forced necessity in their educational process. The conscious approach to optimize the indicators of their physical, motor and functional development was seen among the students almost two times less frequently. Among all the students girls and boys with chronic diseases and disorders of varying degrees of functional systems had the least desire to exercise. In our opinion, the previously noted alarming needs-and-motivation situation in sports activity of students is primarily based on inflated self-assessment of their health and level of physical fitness.
The problem of formation of a stable demand of active sports activity largely involves a shortage of motor activity in students. This fact has been stated by researchers for at least two decades. However, based on the monitoring data, it should be noted that, given the still prevailing inactive lifestyle among students, irrational planning of daily regime and usage of free time, positive changes can be noted in students' attitudes to physical education and sport.
Another fact remains valid which confirms the predetermination of the human body adaptabilities, ability to comply with social demands on health, physical, motor and functional development, more than 50% of the conditions and lifestyle. In the context of this statement it can be noted that in Russia in general there is a negative trend peculiar to young students in terms of morbidity, physical and mental health .
The university has long maintained the statistics of the distribution of students into medical groups. From 2001 to 2012 the indicator of relatively healthy students has dropped by more than one third and reached 46,3% of the total of students. With relatively little variability the proportion of students with minor morphofunctional disorders and insufficient level of physical condition has increased by an average of 7%. The number of students of special medical group has doubled comparing to the preparatory group and became approximately 30%.
The detailed study of the quantitative values of nosological forms of students of the special medical group, according to the main sections of the International Statistical Classification (ICD-10) has revealed the prevalence of the diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue among all diseases – 48,54%. Compared with this classification group the circulatory system diseases (13,07%) and mental disorders (12,43%) are almost 3,5-4 times less common among students. Eye diseases and diseases of the urinary tract can be encountered even more rarely, in the range of 4,5% to 6,5%, as well as diseases of respiratory organs and digestive system.
The occurrence of combined forms of pathologies increased, two or more diseases among students who have underlying medical conditions such as back pain, mitral valve prolapse, flat feet, myopia and scoliosis were observed in forty cases out of a hundred. To a lesser degree such combinability could be seen in students who had respiratory diseases (asthma – 15,5%) and urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis – 21,1%), as well as one of the diseases of the circulatory system (minor heart malformations – 19,6%).
In this situation, the above mentioned moderate negative trend in the level of physical development, motor fitness and functional status of students was considered regular.
The descriptive statistics of the height and weight characteristics of physical development of students has revealed that with the compliance of the studied characteristics level with the average values a positive trend in their dynamics has been noted over the last fifteen years. An increase in height rate among girls was 1,.9 cm with an increase in the body weight values by 2,8 kg. Unlike girls the changes in the height-weight characteristics of boys were subject to a minor heterochronicity. With the more pronounced dynamics in height rates (an increase by 2,3 cm) moderately positive changes were also observed in the body weight values, not exceeding 2 kg.
Circumference sizes of the main body segments matched properly the age and sex values of students' physical development. The dynamics of the studied values among students, with little variation, did not exceed 1% and was not statistically authentic. The relative indicators of body fat in girls considering a standard rate of 24% ranged from 23,9% to 24,6% on average. In boys the indicator did not exceed the average level of 15,4% considering the standard rate of 18%.
The main feature of the dynamics of motor fitness of girls and boys was its regressing tendency in terms of development of almost all the studied physical qualities. In percentage terms, this is particularly noticeable among girls in test tasks with the priority manifestation of speed and speed-strength qualities, as well as static and aerobic endurance. On average, the decrease varied from 3,2% to 9,6%. Unlike girls, a less pronounced regression was observed in boys.
An average statistical reduction in these tests was at the level of 4-5%.
According to the findings of the study of the students’ functional statuses using the mathematical analysis of heart rate, neurohumoral regulation, autonomic balance, the state of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, as well as the state of energy and metabolic level of the autonomic regulation were consistent with the values of the norms and statistics. The noted autonomic dysfunctions, accompanied by a predominance of vagotonic or sympathetic effects, might indicated disadaptation on the prenosological stages of the cardiovascular system disorders.
Using a range of types of reactivity as benchmarks, the results of electropunctural diagnostics provided a general characterization of the functional reactivity of spine and joints of the studied subjects. On average, 39% of the total number of the studied students had their indicators within physiological norms. The remaining students had either hyper or hypo functional disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Generally, physiological disorders had a moderate degree of manifestation, they accounted for about 60%. A pronounced degree of physiological disorders was observed in a small volume and was below 1%.
Conclusion. According to the integrated study of the features of psychophysical status and single components of students’ vital activity, in many social aspects this group of students does not have distinct ideas, knowing the basic requirements of health promotion and protection does not mean using it in life. All in all, it preconditions the deterioration of students’ health, capacities of satisfying corresponding social demands to their physical, motor and functional development. In this situation the integrated approach promotes not only studying and estimating the biosocial efficiency of healthy way of life of young students, but facilitates active search for new efficient directions in development of health protecting technologies.
- Bondin, V.I. Health protecting technologies in the system of higher pedagogical education / V.I. Bondin // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. – 2004. – № 10. P. 15–18. (In Russian)
- Drozdova, L.N. The integrated approach in students’ health estimation / L.N. Drozdova, N.T. Selezneva // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. – 2007. – № 7. – P. 13–14. (In Russian)
- Korkotsenko, M.N. The integrated approach in learning: from theory to practice / M.N. Korkotsenko// Mezhdisciplinarnye issledovaniya v nauke i obrazovanii. – 2012. – № 1; URL: www.es.rae.ru/mino/158-1056 (access date: 01.07.2013). (In Russian)
- Podlasy, I.P. Pedagogics: 100 question – 100 answers: study guide for universities / I.P. Podlasy. – Moscow: VLADOS-Presss, 2004. – 365 P. (In Russian)
- The verbatim record on the meeting of the Council for development of physical culture and sport, elite sport, training and holding XXII Winter Olympic Games and XI Winter Paralympic Games 2014 in Sochi. URL: http://archive.kremlin.ru/text/appears /2009/03/214322.shtml / Site of the President of the Russian Federation (access date: 01.07.2013). (In Russian)
Author’s contacts: email@example.com