Sociopsychological Principles of Interethnic Relationship in Sport

Фотографии: 

A.I. Babakov, associate professor, Ph.D.
Institute of physical culture and sport of Vladimir state university, Vladimir

Key words: psychological and social principles of interethnic relationship in sport, patriotism and internationalism of sport, education and self-education, self-regulation, victories and defeats, wrestlers of various ages.

The relevance of the problems of interethnic relationship in modern society is unquestionable. It is proved by numerous wars, conflicts and contradictions on the national, ethnic and religious bases. The interethnic relationships have been set and are being developed, established in the centuries-old traditions, displayed in sports ethics, symbols and rituals. They are mandatory for every trainer, athlete and every organizer of training classes and sports events of different scales. However, from time to time, conflicts and contradictions of national matter arise.

In the sphere of sports activities, including single combat sports, the issue of interethnic relationship has been studied in research, touching, in some sense, on patriotic and international training, (A. Karelin, V. Igumenov, I. Yarygin, N. Magomedov, L. Loginov, V. Bobrovsky, A. Kuznechov, A. Sagaleev, A. Semenov, A. Babakov, etc.), self-education of athletes and self-regulation regarding their emotional state after victories or defeats (G. Gorskaya, L. Dikaya, V. Zobkov, Yu. Sysoev, et al.)

Among the official documents pertaining to interethnic relationship in sports activities, what should be noted is the Olympic Charter as well as documents of international sports federations, places on sports competitions, etc.

The purpose of the study was to analyze sociopsychological principles of interethnic relationship in sport and define effective ways to improve this work in the practice of modern sport.

Materials and methods. The following are selected excerpts from the experimental work. Each experimental group is made of 14-16 people, 5 age groups in total. The 10-point or 5-point rating system was used. The main experiments were carried out on the experimental site created in the Dmitry Timofeev’s martial arts complex of Institute of Physical Culture and Sport of Vladimir state university (city of Vladimir).

The study focused on the Olympic games was conducted continuously throughout the school year and, in summer, in the sports and fitness camps of the Vladimir region during 2008-2012. In total, 248 Greco-Roman, sambo and belt wrestlers of all ages, accompanied by 16 trainers on these types of wrestling, took part in the experimental work. The methodology of the research was based on:

а) diagnostic techniques;

b) educational observations;

c) methods of expert assessments;

d) analysis of advanced and mass experience.

Results and discussion. In conducting a questionnaire and educational observations during the wrestling contest, the participants were given a questionnaire to reveal the differences in emotional state to competitors of the same or different ethnic group, just before going on the carpet. The analytical results are shown in Table 1 (n=180 people).

For the question "What kind of emotions and feelings do you experience in a duel with a representative of your own country?" the following answers were received (Table 1).

Table 1. Emotional state before a competitive fight with a wrestler of the same ethnic group (%, number of subjects)

Positive

emotions

Results of fighters' self-appraisal and experts' educational observations (% of ascertained results collected from the surveyed wrestlers of various ethnic groups)

Negative emotions

Results of fighters' self-appraisal and experts' pedagogical observations (% of ascertained results collected from the surveyed fighters of various ethnic groups)

Composure

52,3

Anxiety

18,2

Confidence

36,2

Self-distrust

12,9

Interest

24,9

Apathy

14,3

Courage

68,3

Cowardice

10,5

Hope

70,5

Disenchantment

26,2

Liveliness

42,3

Fatigue

14,5

Joy

28,4

Sorrow

16,9

Pride

30,9

Demoralization

4,8

Combat readiness (lack of unrest in the form of trembling as jitters)

62,8

Clearly expressed "prestart fever"

38,4

Combat readiness (lack of apathy, lethargy, relaxation)

68,1

Clearly expressed prestart apathy

32,3

For the question "What kind of emotions and feelings do you experience in a duel with a representative of another country?" the following answers were received (Table 2) (n=126 people).

Table 2. Emotional state before a competitive duel with a wrestler of a different to the former's ethnic group (%, number of subjects)

Positive

emotions

Results of fighters' self-appraisal and experts' educational observations (% of ascertained results collected from the surveyed wrestlers of various ethnic groups)

Negative emotions

Results of fighters' self-appraisal and experts' educational observations (% of ascertained results collected from the surveyed wrestlers of various ethnic groups)

Composure

24,3

Anxiety

57,5

Confidence

7,2

Self-distrust

62,2

Interest

44,4

Apathy

36,2

Courage

22,4

Cowardice

72,9

Hope

24,6

Disenchantment

46,8

Liveliness

6,3

Fatigue

48,3

Joy

10,9

Sorrow

34,1

Pride

38,3

Demoralization

18,2

Combat readiness (lack of agitation in the form of trembling as jitters)

30,3

Clearly expressed "prestart fever"

70,2

Combat readiness (lack of apathy, lethargy, relaxation)

28,1

Clearly expressed prestart apathy

72,8

In this research fragment the sociopsychological grounds of interethnic relationship in the process of sports competitions of various scale - regional, Russian and international, including the XXVII World Summer Student Games in the city of Kazan (July 2013) – are in the focus of attention.

The next fragment shows the experimental program, which is based on theoretical information and the acquisition of practical experience through interethnic relationship, in terms of working with multinational sports teams made of Greco-Roman, sambo and belt wrestlers. Conventionally, 5 units are allocated in content of the experimental work.

Unit 1: theoretical information on ethnic identity and consciousness of each person. Acquisition of experience of interethnic relationship in sports and other activities.

Unit 2: theory of patriotism in sport. Acquisition of the experience of patriotic behavior.

Unit 3: theory of internationalism in sport. Acquisition of experience of international behavior.

Unit 4: theory of self-education in sport. Acquisition of practical experience of person's self-education and behavior in sports activities.

Unit 5: theory of self-regulation in terms of emotional state in sport. Acquisition of experience of self-regulation of emotional states and behavior after victories and defeats in sports.

The young and senior wrestlers in our main experimental groups are competent athletes, mostly advanced students, who demonstrate an increasingly evident aspiration to strengthen interethnic relationship in sports and other activities.

The presented-in-this-paper analytical results of the study allow us to reach the following conclusions:

1. The social basis of interethnic relationship in sport is made of the documents of international sports federations, International Olympic Committee, Olympic Charter, national declarations, political parties and public organizations in physical culture and sport.

2. Psychological and educational aspects of formation of the interethnic relationship in sport during trainings and competitions in wrestling are consolidated by the long-term practice and the methods specially organized by social, psychological and educational activities, which is to be focused on the following components:

  • belief in ethnic identity of every person in terms of ethnic consciousness of junior, young and senior athletes;
  • formation of patriotic qualities in an athlete's personality;
  • formation of international traits in an athlete's personality;
  • education and self-education of interethnic relationship in sports activities and everyday life;
  • self-regulation of an athlete's emotional state in acute, uncompromising sports-rivalry conditions after the inevitable victories and defeats.

3. Formation of humane, tolerant interethnic relationship, useful for trainers and athletes during sports competition, requires awareness of the social essence of sport for all nations and consolidation of the experience of self-regulation of emotional states and correct actions at victories and defeats.

4. The developmental approach lays the basis of the actions on formation of the interethnic relationship in sport, especially in martial arts: taking into account the categories of junior schoolchildren, adolescents, young boys and senior wrestlers.

References

  1. Babakov, A.I. Dialectics of the national and international in the system of sports activity with young wrestlers / A.I. Babakov// Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. – 2012. – № 8. – P. 54-58. (In Russian)
  2. Babakov, A.I. Interethnic relationship in sports activity: In: Psychology of human attitude to vital activity: problems and perspectives. Book of abstracts of the Internat. theor.-pract. conf. dedicated to the 120th anniversary of V.N. Myasischev, July 10-13 2013, publ. h-se of VAU named after A.G. and N.G. Stoletov. / A.I. Babakov. - Vladimir-Moscow, 2013. – P. 344-347. (In Russian)
  3. Bobrovsky, V.A. Patriotic education of young wrestlers: abstract of Ph.D. thesis / V.A. Bobrovsky. – Moscow, 1997. – 20 P. (In Russian)
  4. Gorskaya, G.B. Psychological factors of self-realization of professionals (case study of sports activity): doctoral thesis (Psychology) / G.B. Gorskaya. – Krasnodar, 1999. – 332 P. (In Russian)
  5. Dikaya, L.G. Psychology of self-regulation of the subject’s functional state in extreme conditions: doctoral thesis (Psychology) / L.G. Dikaya. – Moscow, 2002. – 342 P. (In Russian)
  6. Zobkov, V.A. Psychology of pupil’s relations and personality / V.A. Zobkov. – Kazan: publ. h-se of Kazan un-ty, 1992. – 155 P. (In Russian)
  7. Igumenov, V.M. The study of the influence of pre-start emotional arousal of elite wrestlers on the results of performances at Russian competitions: abstract of Ph.D. thesis / V.M. Igumenov. – Moscow, 1971. – 27 P. (In Russian)
  8. Karelin, A.A. The system of integral training of elite wrestlers: doctoral thesis (Hab.) / A.A. Karelin. – St.Petersburg, 2003. – 406 P. (In Russian)
  9. Kuznetsov, A.S. Organization and methodological principles of long-term technical and tactical training in Greco-Roman wrestling: doctoral thesis (Hab.) / A.S. Kuznetsov. – Krasnodar, 2002. – 481 P. (In Russian)
  10. Magomedov, N.M. Training patriotic and international qualities in wrestlers: monograph / N.M. Magomedov, L.V. Loginov, A.I. Babakov. – Vladimir: publ. h-se of VlSU, Sobor, 2012. – 256 P. (In Russian)
  11. Sagaleev, A.S. Wrestlers’ competitive-training activity in conditions of the East-West intercultural dialogue: doctoral thesis (Hab.) / A.S. Sagaleev. – Ulan-Ude, 2011. – 54 P. (In Russian)
  12. Semenov, A.G. Development of Greco-Roman wrestling in Soviet student sport and physical education: doctoral thesis (Hab.) / A.G. Semenov. – St.Petersburg, 2001. – 487 P. (In Russian)
  13. Sysoev, Yu.V. Theoretical and methodological principles of formation and uniting the collective during sports activity: doctoral thesis (Hab.) / Yu.V. Sysoev. – Moscow, 2001. – 480 P. (In Russian)
  14. Yarygin, I.S. When you exceed the competition area / I.S. Yarygin. – Moscow: Sovetskaya Rossiya, 1989. – 144 P. (In Russian)