WE ARE DEVOTED TO SERVICE OF RUSSIAN SPORTS SCIENCE
I.Yu. Radchich, professor, Ph.D., general director of FSBI FSC VNIIFK
L.B. Kofman, professor, Dr.Hab., deputy director general FSBI FSC VNIIFK
Key words: organization, physical culture, elite sport, history, science, researches.
In compliance with the regulations and personal intentions the Federal State Budgetary Institution “Federal Science Center for Physical Culture and Sport” (short title FSBI FSC VNIIFK) is an assignee of the All-Russia scientific research institute of physical culture and sport – the first in the country and among the oldest scientific research institutes in the field of physical culture and sport in the world, which was founded on the 17th of November 1933, when the Statute on the Central scientific research institute of physical culture (CSRIPhC) was adopted by the panel of the CEC USSR.
In the USSR physical culture has been considered as a major method of the army reserve training. The scientific researches were to assist in development of the national sports movement, for physical culture was an effective and available method of people’s recreation.
Since its first days the institute, that used to be named CSRIPhC, joined the development of scientific problems of the complex Ready for Labour and Defence (RLD) of the USSR, technology of remedial gymnastics, that helped the country in the years of the Great Patriotic War. Due to the growing role of sport the legal framework of physical education was established – the All-Union complex of physical culture RLD and the Unified All-Union sports qualification.
CSRIPhC, organized as a head center of the scientific sports thought, on the one hand, is to perform the function of the scientific basis of loyalty to the state policy in the sphere of physical culture and sport, while on the other, - to collaborate in development of the mechanisms ensuring realization of selected strategy. The first directors of the CSRIPhC – B.E. Zelikson (1933-1935) and A.D. Novikov (1935-1941) have performed great services for its formation.
In 1937 the unified plan of scientific and research works was first adopted, and the CSRIPhC was entrusted with developing the measures on coordination of the subject area of scientific researches and monitoring of subjects. The unified plan presupposed the scientific research work in 10 directions: theory, history and general methodology of physical culture; the unified educational system of the RLD-based sports sections and schools; scientific principles of sports training and technique; physical culture as a factor of better performance; the basics of physical culture in preschool and school age; university physical culture; sports healthcare; sports injuries and their prevention; remedial gymnastics; training and conditioning with cold.
The CSRIPhC kept developing and establishing new organization departments. The Central translation library was established at the CSRIPhC by the decree of the Committee for physical culture and sport in 1940, intended to accumulate all the existing translation materials on physical education and sport, so that Soviet scientists and trainers could learn about scientific and methodological achievements of foreign experts.
The scientists of the institute designed an original system of industrial gymnastics, made numerous theoretical and methodological works on the issues of sports training, physiology of sports activity, sports healthcare and school physical education.
There were big difficulties with standardization of the work on physical education and development of sport after the WW2. Over 20 million citizens of the Soviet Union have given their lives for the sake of their socialist Motherland. Over 4 thousand gyms at primary and secondary schools and 334 institute gyms were demolished on the occupied territory. 18 percent of experts in physical education and 15 percent of diplomaed trainers lost their lives or were disabled. But, despite all the difficulties, in the late 40s - early 50s Soviet athletes started performing on the international arena.
The new statute on the CSRIPhC was adopted right after the war, in 1945, with the main goal of the institute being the overall development of advanced science in physical education and sport.
One can mark the success in development and validation of the RLD standards, designing the issues of theory and technology of sports training in the works by D.P. Markov, V.M. D’yachkov, D.P. Ionov, V.V. Sadowski, M.P. Sokolov et al. The physiologists, specifically A.N. Krestovnikov, worked very well and effective. The valuable works on the issues of sports healthcare belong to S.P. Letunov, N.D. Graevskaya and N.V. Savina.
Herewith, as it has been marked in the report of the director of the CSRIPhC, outstanding sports scientist of the modern times N.G. Ozolin "On problem plan of scientific and research work for 1956-1960", the role of sports science in developing the issues of school physical education and sport is very small, the issues of youth sport and recreational functions of physical culture being developed weakly”.
In the second half of the 60s the structure of the CSRIPhC included: sector of theory and methodology of elite athletes’ training (head - Ph.D. S.A. Savin), elite sports medicine sector (head - prof. S.P. Letunov), sports physiology sector (head – prof. A.V. Korobkov), sector of sociological problems of physical culture and sport (head – prof. G.I. Kukushkin), sector of physical culture with middle aged and elderly persons (head - Ph.D. I.T. Osipov), sector of planning, coordination and realization of scientific researches (head - Ph.D. A.G. Ivanin), sector of theory and methodology of youth sport (head - former Ph.D., current Dr.Hab., prof. V.P. Filin), sector of industrial physical culture (head – prof. V.V. Belinovich), laboratory of sports biomechanics (head - former Ph.D., current Dr.Hab., prof. I.P. Ratov), specialized experimental equipment laboratory (head – V.M. Abalakov), foreign sports sector. Many sectors were responsible for directing several issues. For example, the sector of theory and methodology of elite athletes’ training worked at 4 issues: “Study of the methods of technical training of elite athletes”, “Improvement of the methods of special physical training of elite athletes”, “Enhancement of the all-round physical training of elite athletes”, “Development of propositions of the long-term training plan for Soviet athletes for the Olympics by 1968”.
It reached its top biggest of 1200 persons by the XXII Olympic games. By then the laboratory for anti-doping control was already established within the institute. The central specialized information service (TsOONTI-FiS) was established promptly in 1980 by the order of the Committee on physical culture and sports under the Council of Ministers of the USSR under the FSBI FSC VNIIFK. In included the already existing in the FSC VNIIFK laboratory of research and development of SRI “Sport”, foreign sport department and the institute scientific library. This institution was abolished in the early 90s.
By the year 1981 15 doctors of science and 206 PhDs were working in the FSBI FSC VNIIFK. 30 persons finished the institute postgraduate course annually with the total number of graduates 378 PhDs, 2/3 of them worked in the educational institutions of Siberia, Far East and Middle Asia. The scientists of the FSBI FSC VNIIFK have become widely known in the scientific community.
The FSBI FSC VNIIFK has always rendered significant practical assistance to the national sport movement. Much attention was given to elite sport, which was the way to settle the ideological and political issues of the country. Practical assistance of the employees of the FSBI FSC VNIIFK in training national teams for the biggest sports competitions was realized within complex research groups (CRG).
In the late 50s the researchers of the CSRIPhC contributed to enhancing the training system for football players, competition schedule, athletes’ sport healthcare (studies by S.A. Savin, N.D. Graevskaya, M.G. Shafeeva), improving our sprinters’ results (studies by V.P. Filin).
Scientists of the institute have designed the science-based system of the country physical education that involved various aspects of physical culture and sport. Physical culture was introduced into the labor process for the first time in the world. The institute created the system of mass sports competitions and recreational measures. Development and introduction into the practice of the centralized system of athletes’ training, further taken by all countries of the world were an important asset of the scientists of FSBI FSC VNIIFK.
The transition of the Soviet economy to market principles of development that were to be introduced in science was a big blow to the positions of the FSBI FSC VNIIFK. Nevertheless, now the institute still has the potential of a powerful scientific center to settle general theoretical and applied tasks of development of physical culture and sport. The FSBI FSC VNIIFK developments offered by the institute on the paid services market in 1997, started from 47 positions: from the fitness shape check-up of athletes and the handicapped, complex targeted programs of regional development of physical culture and sport up to specific methodologies, stands and training simulators (conditioning, visual etc.).
Methodological, theoretical principles of the physical education and sports activity, validation of the federal and regional policy on physical culture and sport, system of measures of their government assistance, design of the norms and standards of physical culture, sport and tourism are the principal research sections of the FSBI FSC VNIIFK scientists.
The scientific achievements of the FSBI FSC VNIIFK are defined by the activity of 26 doctors of science and 120 PhDs and the conscientious work of the whole institute staff. Three Thesis Committees available are the stimulus of development of sports science.
The scientific issues of sports training (general methodological principles of sports training, physiology and fitness, biodynamic researches in different sports) went much further then. I.A. Kryachko, G.V. Vasil’ev, N.G. Ozolin, D.D. Donskoy, R.E. Motylyanskaya have made a remarkable contribution to the development of these directions of scientific researches.
4466 theses on the physical culture issues, including 175 doctoral ones, have been defended from 1938 till 1985. The average number of PhDs was 170 a year up to 1991. 65-70% of the works were dedicated to the problems of improvement of elite athletes and training sports reserves.
The epoch of the 90-s of the last century was not easy for the institute. Many qualified experts resigned from the institute or left the country. The rich scientific library containing priceless works on sports science was lost. The system of young expert training was ruined. The level of scientific research work dropped significantly. Nevertheless, the monograph “The modern sports training system” (Ed. by V.L. Sych, F.P. Suslov, B.N. Shustin) was written and published in 1995. Much work was done in making the Unified sports classification for 1997-2000 and 2001-2005.
Then the success of the scientists of the FSBI FSC VNIIFK has come to prominence thanks to the work of I.P. Ratov on the issues of biomechanics, S.P. Letunov, R.E. Motylyanskaya – on the issues of sports medicine, F.A. Iordanskaya – on development of parameters of the functionalities of supporting systems of athletes’ physical working capacity, R.S. Suzdalnitsky and V.A. Levando - on the studies of physical factors for athletes’ immune system rehabilitation after strenuous exercise, S.N. Portugalov – on designing advanced combination adaptogene preparations and their effect on physical working capacity and the state of humoral immunity of elite athletes, V.V. Kuznetsov and A.A. Novikov – on the design of a sports training system, B.N. Shustina – on development of model characteristics of the strongest athletes, V.P. Filin, M.Ya. Nabatnikova, V.G. Nikitushkin - on the issues of children’s and youth sport, V.A. Kabachkova – on development of the issues of prevention of teenage delinquency and drug abuse via physical culture and sport, T.F. Abramova – on development of genetic markers of individual sports endowments and the system of morphological markers of the actual fitness level.
Nowadays the FSBI FSC VNIIFK gives employment to complex research groups in 23 sports that carry out phased, current examinations and surveys of competitive activity of athletes of the country national teams. Much attention is being paid to enhancement of the scientific and scientific-methodological support of training of Russian national teams for summer and winter Olympic games. The scientific-research stand for complex examinations of athletes from national teams has been created and is operating successfully, where phase integrated researches in a number of sports are being held.
A big contribution to the increase of efficiency of science and realization of the “Strategy of development of physical culture and sport for the term up to 2020”, competitive recovery of elite sport were made by the general director of the Federal science center VNIIFK, Honored worker of physical culture of the Russian Federation, academician of RANS I.Yu. Radchich, who controlled much work on the modernization of the system of scientific-methodological, medico-biological and information-technological support of elite athletes’ training in Olympic sports, which ideology is stipulated in the 3-part monograph “Scientific-methodological, medico-biological and information-technological support of elite athletes’ training. The unified criteria of integrated monitoring. Innovation technologies” [1, 2, 3].
In compliance with the order of the Government of the Russian Federation by the results of the combined meeting of the Council of the President of the Russian Federation on promotion of physical culture and sport, elite sport, training and holding the XXII Olympic winter games and the XI Paralympic winter games 2014 in Sochi, XXVII World summer Student Games 2013 in Kazan, Football World Cup 2018 and the nonprofit welfare institution “supporting fund for Russian Olympic athletes”, held on the 25th June 2011 in Kazan, on establishing the Federal science center of physical culture and sport Ministry of sport, tourism and youth policy of the Russian Federation.
The “Federal science center of physical culture and sport” (hereinafter referred to as “Center”) was established and its regulations were adopted by the decree of the Ministry of sports and tourism of Russia with the aim of modernization of the Russian sports science, more efficient introducing of innovation technologies into the training practice of elite athletes and sports reserve, implementation of the state policy aimed at formation of the healthy way of life, improvement of the quality of scientific researches and training of qualified scientific and research and educational personnel based on the All-Russia science research institute of physical culture and sport”. The concept of the Center’s activity has been worked out with the main directions being formation of the common information space in the sphere of physical culture and sport; applied scientific developments and fundamental researches, design of innovation projects in the field of elite sport and sports reserve ensuring regular victories of Russian athletes at the biggest international sports competitions, including Olympic, Paralympic and Surdolympic games; assisting in complex problem solution to increase the role and capacities of physical culture and sport in the country’s socioeconomic development, improve the quality of life of the Russian people by involving most of the country population in regular sports occupations.
In addition, the Center’s activity resulted in the modernization of the system of educational, methodological, medico-biological, psychological support of sports national teams of the country and sports reserve, ensuring training of the elite scientific personnel in compliance with scientific requirements in the sphere of physical culture and sport.
With the view of organization of more efficient execution of the stipulated commission of the President of the Russian Federation, future enhancement of the material and technical basis (the building reconstruction is at the finishing stage) and manpower resources of the FSBI FSC VNIIFK we subjected to the Minister of sport the model of the Federal scientific center for physical culture and sport (the structure of the Federal science center VNIIFK is adduced on Fig.1) with the redrafted regulations of the Federal science center VNIIFK, promoting realization of the set goals. The order of the Ministry of sport sand tourism Russia № 1313 published on 01.11.11 on approval of the regulations of the Federal science center for physical culture and sport was registered in the appropriate subdivision of the Federal Tax Service (Russia) on 14.11.11. Mass sport, elite sport and sports reserve are the strategic sectors of activity of the Federal science center for physical culture and sport.
As noted above, the Federal science center for physical culture and sport is an assignee of the FSBI FSC VNIIFK.
The main directions of activity of the Center are as follows:
- applied researches in physical culture and sport in accordance with the schedule of the Center, adopted by the Founder;
- implementing the main curricula of post-graduate vocational training on the specialities and directions of training, specified in the teaching license;
- training of sports national teams of the Russian Federation.
Herewith, the Center is responsible for the innovative directions of activity, including establishment of federal sports bases for training athletes from the Russian national teams of the branches of the Center with the function of organizing the scientific support of training of the first and reserve teams of the country national team in summer and winter sports with maintenance of the Center branches with advanced testing equipment for efficient rehabilitation of athletes during training sessions and after strenuous exercise.
The structural departments of the Center are to be established first based on federal sports colleges of Olympic reserve to ensure succession in elite athletes’ training from the talented perspective youth. In accordance with the given innovation approach the Center’s function is coordinating and directing in respect to the scientific and methodological support of athletes at all phases of the long-term training process in the close unity with teaching and educational processes.
Moreover, the Center’s activity resulted in the modernization of the system of educational, psychological and pedagogical support of sports national teams of the country and sports reserve, ensuring training of qualified scientific personnel in compliance with the scientific requirements in the sphere of physical culture and sport. Development and introduction of the All-Russia sports complex is one of the main topics of future scientific researches.
Nowadays the personnel potential of the Center is over 75% employees with a degree (27 doctors of and 65 PhDs) and with the mean age under 50. Two Doctoral Thesis Committees on scientific specialities of sports medicine, theory of the methodology of physical education and sports training are operating successfully. The high professional level of the post-graduate entrants inspires confidence in the Center’s future.
The Center is a member of international organizations such as: International Society of biomechanics in sport, International Council of sport medicine and sport science, International Society of Sport Psychology and International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education. Moreover, the Center has reached the cooperation agreements with advanced international science center in the field of physical culture and sport in China, United Kingdom, Korea, Slovenia, Italy and Germany.
In the spirit of strengthening of friendship and mutual understanding, recognizing the value of sport, physical culture and leisure as essential elements of social changes, and with the goal of improvement of the people’s standard of living, enhancement, promotion of their health and physical fitness level the Parties (bilateral Agreements) cooperate and make collaborate scientific researches and various measurements.
The Parties contribute to wider cooperation for the mutual benefit in compliance with the legislation of each party in the field of physical culture and sport.
Cooperative agreements affect all spheres of physical culture and sport: mass sport, elite sport, sports reserve, sports community, sports medicine, sports pedagogics, psychology, physiology, including molecular, biochemistry, biomechanics; the issue of renovation of premises to create, equip and organize the activity of sports and fitness centers at sports facilities; in studies of the human potential, reserve abilities and emotional energy in various extreme conditions, including sports activity, using a wide range of methods and scientific equipment; creation of the common information space, holding All-Russia theoretical and practical conferences with international participation on the acute issues.
All the signed agreements of intent can be systemized as international and national in the following way:
by the status and belonging to specific sphere of activity (Russian Olympic Committee; Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS); Republic Government; Ministries (Committees, Republic agencies) of physical culture, sport and tourism in Republics). All-Russia Federations (Associations) in different sports; structural department of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation; scientific research institutes (or centers); higher professional educational institutions; producers of modern technologies; sports training centers (elite sport and sports reserve); recovery and rehabilitation centers; sports clubs; sports publishing houses.
By the sectors of activity:
- training athletes for big international competitions of winter and summer Olympics (now the actions on inclusion of the works on training for Surdolympics are being carried out);
- in the sphere of advanced training and retraining of experts in physical culture and sport
- on sharing of advanced practical experience and expert training period
- services in organizing and implementing educational curricula
- technical support services of the technological park on the territory of the Russian Federation
- in the sphere of scientific-technical and innovative activities intended to settle the major problems of Republics using the scientific potential of the Federal science center VNIIFK
As a part of partnership:
- the International professional exhibition “SPORT”
- the International exhibition “SPORT AND MEDICINE”
- the International exhibition “NATIONAL HEALTH LEAGUE”
As Founders on behalf of the Ministry of sport of the Russian Federation in the association of professional trainers of Russia
Hence, the Federal science center VNIIFK is leading a very active scientific way of life and is getting ready for proper celebration of its 80th anniversary!
On my own behalf I congratulate my dear collective on the 80th anniversary and I am proud to be given the great honour of carrying out the assignment of Minister of Sport of the Russian Federation V.L. Mutko to take measures on modernization of the institute in view of modern trends and reconstruct the building as an Olympic object by the project “Reconstruction and equipping of the Anti-doping center based on the All-Russia scientific research institute of physical culture and sport FSBI FSC VNIIFK”.
Now we - the head scientific institution of the sports industry, not only have a new name and building but new structure and contents when preserving the long-term traditions and, what is most important, the personnel potential, involving both young talented, highly professional and passionate scientists and our beloved veterans of labour: A.A. Novikov, N.A. Khudadov, V.S. Martynov, F.A. Iordanskaya, G.A. Goncharova, V.A. Kabachkov, L.A. Kalinikin, A.O. Akopyan, N.A. Gross, A.I. Golovachev, E.L. Butulov, V.L. Safonov, E.A. Abramov, N.A. Usakov, N.N. Kondratov, S.N. Portugalov, E.A. Shirkovets, B.N. Shustin, A.R. Yakubovskaya. Hence, the Federal science center VNIIFK has a very active scientific life and gets ready for the proper celebration of its anniversary!
When celebrating the 80th anniversary of the Federal science center for physical culture and sport, one is to pay tribute to those who used to run the institute. These are: B.E. Zelikson (1933-1935), A.D. Novikov (1935-1941), V.N. Kas’yanov (1941-1945), I.A. Kryachko (1945-1950), G.I. Kukushkin (1950-1952), N.G. Ozolin (1953-1963), A.V. Korobkov (1964 -1970), L.S. Khomenkov (1971-1974), S.N. Popov (1975-1978), I.P. Ratov (1978-1981), B.G. Fadeev (1981-1984), S.M. Vaytsekhovsky (1984-1986), V.M. Zatsiorsky (198 -1989), P.A. Vinogradov (1989-1995), S.D. Neverkovich (1995-2001), O.P. Yushkov (2001-2002), L.V. Aristova (2002-2003), L.B. Kofman (2003-2006), A.G. Tonevitsky (2006-2011), I.Yu. Radchich (2011 up to now).
Unfortunately, remarkable scientists and organizers of sports science such as V.L. Sych, L.S. Khomenkov, V.S. Rodichenko, V.I. Chudinov, N.N. Ozolin, M.V.Starodubtsev, V.A. Levando, V.A. Chelnokov, G.P. Semenov, V.S. Dakhnovsky have passed away, but the memory of them is cherished by the employees.
Our labour of love for the benefit of sports science and education has been recognized by the organization committee of the Oxford Summit of Leaders - the Club of the Rectors of Europe (CRE), Europe Business Assembly, the International Club of Leaders (Oxford, UK). The general director of the Federal science center VNIIFK was invited as a speaker at one of the sections of the conference “Science and Education. New trends and opportunities. Oxford Summit Meeting” and present her institution within the ”Presentations of the best universities included in the ranking EBA. Best University 2013”.
The Honor Award “The Name in Science” was given to your humble servant, Radchich Irina Yur’evna, by the Socrates Nomination Committee. The ceremony of honouring the leaders in the field of science and education – the “International Socrates Award Ceremony” will be held in the ceremonial hall of the old town council on the 17th of December. In addition to the diploma the holder of the title “The Name in Science” gets the memorable sign on the blue ribbon “For contribution to world science” with Socrates on the reverse side and an inscription “Honour to scientist”, Diploma of a holder of the title “The Name in Science”, confirming that the nominee's name has been recorded in the World Register of Outstanding Scientists.
- Radchich, I.Yu. Modernization of the competition system and schedule in elite sport / I.Yu. Radchich, I.N. Preobrazhensky // Trends of development of elite sport and strategy of training elite athletes in 1997–2000: Proceedings of the All-Rus. theor.-pract. conf. – Moscow, 1997. – P. 288–299. (In Russian)
- Radchich, I.Yu. Development of Managerial solution in training elite players / I.Yu. Radchich // Vestn. sportivn. nauki. – 2003. - №2. – P. 10-15,
- Radchich, I.Yu. Methodological, medicobiological and information technological support of elite athletes’ training. Unified criteria of integrated monitoring. Innovation technologies: monograph in 3 parts. 3rd ed. – Moscow: Skyprint, 2013. – 600 P. (In Russian)
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