Specifics of Migrant Children's Adaptation to Conditions of Educational Institution

Фотографии: 

V.A. Vishnevsky, professor, Ph.D.
Surgut state university KhMAR-Ugra, Surgut

Key words: migrant children, constitutional and adaptive abilities, KhMAR-Ugra.

Relevance. The ancient evolution of the human species was accompanied by constant migrations to various climate and geographic zones of the planet, but today the process is especially active. The Khanty-Mansiisk autonomous region-Yugra is a striking example. Development of natural resources of the Middle Ob region contributed to significant human influx and migration, facilitating specificity to the regional social environment. The population of the region has increased by over 1 million of people for the last 30 years. Representatives of 123 nationalities live on the territory of the region. In some parallels of Surgut educational institutions the share of migrant children reaches 30%. Such rates and scale of the migration process are unique not only for our country, but for the whole world in general [2].

Finding themselves in severe environment, migrants face a number of unusual climate and geographic and weather factors. A change of ecologically natural habitats usually raises the demands to body’s adaptabilities, provokes substantial critical reorganization and in case of unfavourable conditions creates prerequisites for development of pathological processes [1, 4]. And the question arises how adequate they adapt to new natural climatic and socioeconomic conditions, that served the subject of the special research.

The purpose of the study was to make a comparative analysis of the condition of preteen residents of Surgut and those who have arrived in the region during the last 3-5 years.

Organization and methods. The analysis is performed in the integrated study of the influence of various aspects of the educational and training process on the state of large-scale schoolchildren [3]. The study involved preteen children of the state funded educational institutions № 26 and № 39 of Surgut, residing in the region and those who have arrived in the region during the last 3-5 years. Wherever possible, variables such as age, gender, educational institutions, parallel classes were stabilized.

There were evaluated: rate and harmony of physical development; external respiration indices (“Micro Medical” spirometer); adaptive response of the body on the vegetative level (heart rate variability, the diagnostic complex “ORTO Expert” and the software package “Science”); psychophysiological properties (universal activatiometer AC-9K, Kazan); general and school types of anxiety (shortened manifest anxiety scale SMAS, Phillips’s school anxiety test, Prikhozhan's scale of personal anxiety); efficiency and stability at muscle (stress test on a cycle ergometer in a closed power variation cycle) and mental (Toulouse-Piéron test) activities; GPA (results for the quarter); level of formation and self-development of health culture (including motivational-value, cognitive, activity and effective components).

The findings were subjected to an univariate and a multivariate statistical analyses using the software Statistica_6 (StatSoft, USA). Statistical hypotheses were tested using the Student t-test and the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test.

Results of studies. The indicators of the two groups of 8-9 year old males are presented in Table 1 (only significantly different parameters are shown). The analysis shows that the examined migrant children do not differ in the majority of parameters from children residing in Surgut. At the same time migrant boys have significantly lower body weight compared with their peers. In our opinion, this is due to the fact that most of the newcomers are from the former southern Soviet republics and have appropriate constitutional characteristics.

Table 1. Comparative analysis of indicators of different functional systems in boys of primary school age residing in the city of Surgut and migrant boys

Indicator

Natives boys

n

Migrant boys

n

Test of differences

Statistical significance, р

M±σ

M±σ

Age, years

8,8±1,1

128

8,7±1,3

36

 

>0,05

Body weight, kg

33,3±7,8

128

29,8±6,7

36

t = 2,6

< 0,05

Pulse value of exercise, beats/W/kg

0,126±0,052

128

0,157±0,056

36

t = – 2,8

< 0,05

Stability of pulse value (c.u.)

0,0151±0,0074

128

0,0179±0,0076

36

t = – 2,0

< 0,05

Accuracy in the test RMO, c.u.

41±20

122

48±17

36

U = 1622

= 0,009

Range in the test RMO (c.u.)

90±68

122

109±63

36

U = 1715

= 0,027

Shortened manifest anxiety scale SMAS, points

21,7±8,9

124

18,6±7,7

34

U = 398

= 0,0001

GPA

4,19±0,37

128

4,01±0,35

36

t = 2,2

U = 1722

= 0,05

Physical activity requires greater pulse value from migrant children. They are less resistant to preserve the efficiency in case of load power changes. In reactions to a moving object (RMO) migrant children often less effectively show integrative brain functions. They have not so perfect physiological mechanisms to ensure accuracy via coordination of multiple subsystems (visual, auditory, motor analyzers), combined to solve a set task.

Although GPA of migrant children is on a fairly good level, it is lower than that of their peers. At the same time migrant boys have lower anxiety. However, this can hardly be considered a sign of a lack of mobilization necessary for a good progress. The fact is that the translation of raw points to the wall gives us seven walls that characterize somewhat increased anxiety.

Similarly, we performed a comparative analysis of secondary children (Table 2).

Table 2. Comparative analysis of indicators of different functional systems in teenagers residing in the city of Surgut and migrant teens

Indicator

Natives boys

n

Migrant boys

n

Test of differences

Statistical significance, р

M±σ

M±σ

Age, years

13,4±1,1

77

13,2±1,1

30

 

>0,05

Body length, sm

164,7±9,6

76

156,6±10,2

32

t = 3,8

< 0,01

Body weight, kg

56,2±11,3

76

49,4±8,7

32

t = 3,3

< 0,01

Chest circumference, sm

80,0±7,7

76

77,1±6,0

32

t = 2,1

< 0,05

FEV.75, l/s

2,50±0,66

77

2,14±0,66

30

t = 2,5

< 0,05

FEV.1, l/s

2,84±0,70

77

2,38±0,73

30

t = 2,9

< 0,01

FV, l

3,09±0,72

77

2,53±0,78

30

t = 3,3

< 0,01

MVV, l/min

107±26

77

89±27

30

t = 2,9

< 0,01

FIVI, l/s

2,00±0,66

77

1,64±0,54

30

t = 2,8

< 0,05

FIVС, l

2,39±0,64

77

1,84±0,52

30

t = 4,5

< 0,001

PIF, l/min

154±52

77

132±42

30

t = 2,2

< 0,05

Pulse value of exercise, beats/W/kg

0,041±0,019

76

0,052±0,022

31

t = – 2,4

< 0,05

Stability of pulse value (c.u.)

0,0050±0,0027

76

0,0065±0,0028

31

t = – 2,5

< 0,05

Total hemispheric activity, c.u.

261±150

75

201±92

31

t = 2,7

< 0,05

Cognitive component of health culture, points

13,94±3,74

86

11,68±4,34

29

U = 893,5

= 0,022

GPA

3,65±0,39

77

3,66±0,35

30

 

> 0,05

Its results indicate that teenagers residing in Surgut, compared with their migrant peers have a bigger body length and weight, chest circumference and number of external respiration parameters including: forced expiratory volume in 0,75 seconds (FEV.75); forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV.1); forced vital capacity (FVC); peak expiratory flow (PEF); maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV); forced inspiratory flow (FIFI); forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC); peak inspiratory flow (PIF). Given that the chest circumference of migrant adolescents is 96,4 % of that of their peers residing in the city of Surgut, and forced expiratory volume in 0,75 and 1 s are 85,6 and 86,8 % respectively, we can state an increase in airways resistance to airflow in migrant schoolchildren, that can precondition obstructive disorders of the bronchial apparatus.

So, the constitutional features of migrant children are even more pronounced by the secondary school age, rather than in the elementary school. Just as primary schoolchildren, migrant teenagers spend a lot of effort to perform physical exercise during the worst stability of the pulse value. Lower total activity of cerebral hemispheres, reflecting less psychoemotional stress, may indicate insufficiently mobilized forces for studying. Although no significant differences in the overall progress are found, migrant teenagers lag behind their peers in the knowledge of the basics of health and healthy lifestyle.

Conclusion. Hence, migrant boys differ from the residents of KhMAR-Yugra of the same age, in respect to both constitutional and adaptive abilities. It is to be taken into account when organizing the maintenance of educational and recreational processes.

 References

  1. Agadzhanyan, N.A. Adaptation, stress, ways of correction: monograph / N.A. Agadzhanyan, S.V. Notova; PFUR, Moscow; Orenburg state university. – Orenburg: OSU, 2010. – 305 P. (In Russian)
  2. Wilhelm, V.D. Specifics of health build up and organization of medical service of the population of Khanty-Mansiisk autonomous region / V.D. Wilhelm, O.P. Goleva, T.S. Nadeina, A.V. Wilhelm. – Khanty-Mansiisk; Omsk: Omsk publishing house, 2004. – 208 P. (In Russian)
  3. Vishnevsky, V.A. System analysis of the children’s state of health at the phases of school ontogenesis / V.A. Vishnevsky, V.V. Apokin, D.V. Serdyukov, A.A. Varin, D.G. Zherebtsov. – Moscow: Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury i sporta, 2010. – 367 P. (In Russian)
  4. Karpin, V.N. Acute pneumonia in the North / V.N. Kantyukhin, V.A. Karpin, T.V. Zuevskaya. – Surgut: IRC SurSU, 2002. – 98 P. (In Russian)

 

Author’s contacts: apokin_vv@mail.ru