Training of Qualified Powerlifter in View of Biorhythmological Approach

Фотографии: 

A.P. Dodonov, postgraduate
T.N. Shutova, associate professor, Ph.D.
Tchaikovsky state institute of physical culture, Tchaikovsky

Key words: power lifting, biorhythms.

Introduction. Due to the increased requirements to the level and reliability of training qualified athletes one has to search for new ways in the theory and methodology of sports training. More efficient training of elite athletes presupposes reconsidering the structure and practical implementation of training programs, paying more attention to athlete's individual characteristics [5]. It is good for qualified power lifters to strive for maximal physical and psychophysiological performance (B.I. Sheyko, 2005) [9], but the issue of planning trainings is insufficiently covered in the existing methodological literature by now. The training technique for power lifters is based on power lifting exercises in strict load conditions in respect to time (schedule) (P.V. Petrov, 2005) [6]. The conceptual basics in the design of the training technique for qualified power lifters is to involve the method of dosing exercises, considering of athletes' individual characteristics, biorhythmological structures and detailed elaboration of pre-season, training of technical skills, that condition ultimate implementation of the strength potential during a competition.

The study of body clock becomes one of the paradigms of scientific thinking of authors N.A. Aghajanyan, R.M. Baevsky, Yu. Aschoff [1, 3, 4]. The architectonics of biorhythms is a unique characteristic of an individual, his rational use can greatly assist in training and performances in competitions (O.I. Aptikaeva, A.G. Gamburtsev, S.I. Stepanova, 2009) [2]. Biorhythms is a time-ordered predictable change of biological processes. The tension level of the body systems changes depending on athlete's chronotype during physical activity at different times of the day.

A.S. Solodkov, E.B. Sologub (2010) allocate internal rhythmic processes and environmental factors that affect the periodic changes in the body. The internal synchronizers include rhythms of electrical activity in the brain (alpha rhythm EEG with the frequency of approximately 10 cycles/s), such as heart rate and respiration, periodicals of digestive and endocrine functions; external ones include cyclic changes in temperature, light, oscillations of the Earth’s magnetic field, atmospheric pressure relating to solar activity, the planets position). The functions of the hypothalamus and pineal body play the leading role in the regulation of biorhythms in a human body [7, 8]. According to circadian biorhythms, "skylarks", "night owls", "arrhythmic persons” are distinguished, differing in physical and intellectual activity at a certain time of the day. We assume that high-intensity workouts in the time interval that do not coincide with peak biological activity reduce the effect from competition exercises.

The goal of the designed technology was to develop maximal strength abilities of qualified power lifters, involving plans of strenuous training on the peak of the biorhythm and low-intensity loads in the phase of decrease of this factor; in view of biorhythms, trainings are held in the morning and in the evening accompanied by the designed pattern of the training session related to athletes' functional status depending on the phase of training for competitive activity. The most efficient trainings were held in compliance with the biorhythm schedule. Athlete of the experimental group, who has a plan of workouts and sinusoidal oscillations of his biorhythms (physical, intellectual and emotional) determined the dosage of his loads in a certain period of time himself. It should be noted that when designing training loads according to the experimental technology general and special physical fitness were taken into account; a barbell squat was included as a basic exercise in the structure of the class. There was used the method of the so-called "pyramid" with the increase of weights in each set and the reduction of repetitions, and the method of "reverse pyramid" with the opposite dosing of weight and number of reps in a set.

Using the "Omega" software we studied the characteristics of psychoemotional state of athletes, the level of intensity and reserves of adaptabilities, work of regulatory systems and identified the peak activity of biorhythms during the day. Training plans were designed with additional recommendations on diet and self-control on the basis of this scientific information. Significant differences were not planned in dosing loads in "morning" and "evening" workouts, as they corresponded to the type of biorhythms of power lifters.

Results of the study. The educational experiment has shown the advantage of the experimental group compared with the control group, that trained by the traditional program (Tab. 1). Significant differences (p<0.05) were detected in the following test exercises: squats, bench press, deadlift, total of three exercises, hand dynamometry, arm pumping exercises hanging on a horizontal bar (pull-up), bar dip up.

Significant intra-group differences in the experimental group were determined in the basic bench press exercise (Tab. 1), the differences were also significant with the control group. The dynamics was 45,5% and 25,7% in the experimental and the control groups for the whole experimental period respectively; the efficiency of the innovative technology is stipulated by the typical level of growth indicators; while in the phase of low functional status for the EG the following approach was suggested, bench press in the partial load mode of 50-60% of the maximum weight in one repetition; in the zone of high functional status the intensity of exercise rises up to the maximum of 90-105 %. The functional methodology "Omega" helped to identify the body's response to a certain load, its pattern and to develop an individual method of development of power abilities of qualified athletes.

Table 2 shows the dynamics of anthropometric data in the experiment.

According to the analysis of anthropometric parameters (Tab. 2), no significant changes were observed in the experimental groups, except for chest circumference, which is associated with hyper-development of chest muscles of power lifters. A significant increase of chest circumference in the experimental group was reached already in the second year of the study (from 94,3 to 99,5 cm), and significant intra-group (99,5 – 103,5 cm) and inter-group differences (98, 0 – 103,5 cm) were revealed at the end of the experiment. The increase of strength indices was achieved without significant changes in body weight, volume, hip and shoulder measurements.

Conclusion. Training sessions conducted in the morning and in the evening in compliance with biorhythms stipulated for better strength indicators of qualified athletes of the experimental group. The advisability of the applied methods and techniques of development of maximal power abilities of athletes was proved by the experiment.

Table 1. Results of basic strength indices in the experiment 2011-2013

Control tests

Gr.

2011 ( x± σ)

2012 ( x± σ)

2013 ( x± σ)

1. Barbell squat (kg)

EG

167,6±25,5

183,5±35,7

197,9±16,5*

CG

170,9±35,5

176,7±37,3

184,7±31,1

2. Bench press (kg)

EG

107,7±10,5

119,3±8,7*

147,1±20,4**

CG

100,3±26,1

110,5±6,3

125,7±18,1

3. Deadlift (kg)

EG

163,7±17,1

182,5±13,3*

187,2±14,6**

CG

163,2±34,4

160,6±32,5

169,2±16,4

4. Total of three (kg)

EG

445±21,9

481,2±32,6*

492,1±30,7**

CG

437,4±40,9

439,8±22

450±29,7

5. Hand dynamometry (right, kg)

EG

44,8±5,3

46,6±5,3

46,9±4,7

CG

46,3±5,8

46,6±5,2

48,8±5,1

6. Hand dynamometry (left, kg)

EG

42,1±5,6

43,6±5,7

44,2±5,4

CG

45,7±5,6

45,6±5,5

45,8±5,2

7. Pull-ups (number of reps)

EG

17,5±4,8

18,9±5,1

30,6±3,9*

CG

15,2±4,4

16,3±3,9

20,1±3,5**

8. Bar dip up (number of reps)

EG

18±5,3

37,8±8,7*

38,3±5,5

CG

22,7±7,8

24,6±7,8**

25,6±6,2**


​Note:  - arithmetic mean, σ - standard deviation; EG - experimental group, CG - control group; * - statistical significance (p<0.05), ** - intergroup statistical significance (p<0.05).

Table 2. Results of anthropometric indices in the experiment (2011-2013)

Parameters

Gr.(n=20)

2011 ( x± σ)

2012 ( x± σ)

2013 (x ± σ)

1. Body length (cm)

EG

176,5±8,3

176,7±8,7

176,8±8,5

CG

177±7,4

177,1±7,3

177,1±7,4

2. Body mass (kg)

EG

75±8,1

81,1±7,3

82,2±6,4

CG

74,8±9,8

76,4±9,6

76,4±9,9

3. CC (chest circumference, cm)

EG

94,3±5,6

99,9±5,7*

103,5±4,1**

CG

94,6±7,2

96,4±7,3

98±4,6

4. HM (hip measurement, cm)

EG

50,6±8

51,3±8,2

52,1±8,7

CG

49,2±5,3

51,5±4,7

51,1±4,8

5. SM (shoulder measurement, cm)

EG

33,9±5,9

35,5±5,0

36,2±5,0

CG

33,1±3,9

34,1±3,6

34,3±3,5

 

Note:  - arithmetic mean, σ - standard deviation; EG - experimental group, CG - control group; * - statistical significance (p<0.05), ** - intergroup statistical significance (p<0.05).

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