Correlation Between the Indicators of Overall and Special Physical Fitness of Qualified Female Kayakists

Фотографии: 

О.P. Chekhanyuk, postgraduate
Lesya Ukrainka East European National University in Volyn, Lutsk, Ukraine
О.А. Chichkan, Ph.D.
Lviv State University of Internal Affairs, Lviv, Ukraine

Key words: physical fitness, qualified female kayakists, correlation, kayaking.

Introduction. The studies of experts in theory of sport prove [3, 5] that high level of special physical fitness requires a sufficient level of overall fitness. Proceeding from the analysis of scientific and methodological literature, scientists in the field of padding studied the correlation of rowers’ physical fitness. In particular, O.A. Chichkan [6] detected the positive relation between indices of overall and special physical fitness of female athletes of all ages. Herewith, A.K. Chuprun, V.E. Zemlyakov and A.A. Seredina [1, 2, 4] described in their works the role of development of physical fitness, but we failed to reveal any results of scientific researches characterizing the structure of correlations of overall and special physical fitness of elite qualified female athletes.

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between the indicators of overall and special physical fitness of qualified female athletes subject to their competitive distances (200, 500, 200 and 500 m).

Materials and methods. The methods applied to obtain the goal were as follows: theoretical analysis and synthesis, pedagogical observation and statistical processing of the findings using Spearman's rank correlation.

30 female athletes (4 Masters of Sport of International grade, 21 Masters of Sport and 5 Candidates for Master of Sports) were the subjects of the educational experiment, intended to determine the relationship between overall and special physical fitness of qualified athletes. The girls were distributed into three groups in view of competitive specializations: group I – female athletes specializing in 200 m distance, group II - 500 m distance and group ІІІ - girls competing at both of the distances.

Results and discussion. Since the functional features of female athletes at the 200 and 500 m distances are different and have their specifics depending on the narrow specialization, we made a correlation analysis of the indices of overall fitness, on the one hand, and special physical fitness, on the other, in qualified female kayakists in view of the main distance.

The conducted correlation analysis enabled to define several aspects. Female kayakists at 200 m distance at maximum power (deadlift dynamometry) had the correlation in 4 out of 7 indices of special fitness – speed qualities in 50 m rowing from standstill (-0,790) and flying (-0,638), special endurance (300 m rowing (-0,720)), speed endurance (3х100 m rowing (-0,687)) (Tab. 1). Other indices were quite close to the critical value r. Strength endurance (bench press 25 kg) significantly correlated with the speed quality in 50 m rowing from standstill (-0,720) and efficiency of starting stride (-0,718). Strength endurance (pull down 30 kg) correlated with maximum speed (50 m rowing from standstill (-0,653)) and strength endurance (3х100 m rowing (-0,677)). High correlation was detected between speed (50 m running) and strength endurance (4х250 m rowing (-0,924)), and averagely significant correlation with speed qualities (50 m flying rowing (0,789)). Other indices were statistically unreliable.

Table 1. The interdependence of overall and special physical fitness of qualified female athletes performing at the 200 m distance

 

Indices of overall physical fitness

1

2

3

4

Indices of special physical fitness

1

-0,720

-0,653

0,591

-0,790

2

-0,538

-0,575

0,789

-0,638

3

-0,718

-0,593

0,270

-0,615

4

-0,584

-0,508

0,426

-0,720

5

-0,299

-0,497

0,000

-0,557

6

-0,626

-0,575

0,924

-0,506

7

-0,539

-0,677

0,273

-0,687

Notes: 1. Indices of overall physical fitness: 1 – bench press 25 kg per min, 2 - pull down 30 kg per min, 3 - 50 m rowing from high start, 4 - deadlift dynamometry. 2. Indices of special physical fitness 1 - 50 m rowing from standstill, s, 2 - 50 m flying rowing, s, 3 – efficiency of starting stride, s, 4 - 300 m rowing, s, 5 - 750 m rowing, s, 6 - 4х250 m rowing, s, 7 - 3х100 m rowing, s. 3. Critical value r ³ 0,632 at p < 0,05.

Female athletes specializing in 500 m had the indices of overall physical fitness and indices of special physical fitness correlated in a number of test tasks (Tab. 2). The indices of strength endurance in the bench press test were closely correlated with 6 indices out of 7, such as speed qualities (50 m rowing from standstill (-0,754)), efficiency of starting stride (-0,699), special endurance (300 m rowing (-0,799) and 750 m rowing (-0,960), strength (4х250 m rowing (-0,855)) and speed (3х100 m rowing (-0,796)) endurance. Maximum strength of back extensors (deadlift dynamometry) was closely correlated with strength qualities (50 m rowing from standstill (-0,772)), special endurance (300 (-0,829) and 750 m rowing (-0,900)), strength endurance (4х250 m rowing (-0,830)). The low correlation was detected only with speed endurance (3х100 m rowing (-0,638)). Strength endurance (pull down) and speed (50 m running) had four significant correlations with speed qualities each (50 m rowing from standstill and flying), special (300 m rowing) and strength endurance (4х250 m rowing).

Table 2. Interdependence between indices of overall and special physical fitness of qualified female athletes performing at the 500 m distance

 

Indices of overall physical fitness

1

2

3

4

Indices of special physical fitness

1

-0,754

-0,821

0,850

-0,772

2

-0,462

-0,657

0,761

-0,571

3

-0,699

-0,604

0,551

-0,566

4

-0,799

-0,854

0,844

-0,829

5

-0,960

-0,559

0,511

-0,900

6

-0,855

-0,770

0,762

-0,830

7

-0,796

-0,340

0,526

-0,638

Notes: 1. Indices of overall physical fitness: 1 – bench press 25 kg per min, 2 - pull down 30 kg per min, 3 - 50 m rowing from high start, 4 - deadlift dynamometry. 2. Indices of special physical fitness 1 - 50 m rowing from standstill, s, 2 - 50 m flying rowing, s, 3 - efficiency of starting stride, s, 4 - rowing 300 m, s, 5 - 750 m rowing, s, 6 - 4х250 m rowing, s, 7 - 3х100 m rowing, s. 3. Critical value r ³ 0,632 at p < 0,05.

The correlation between the indices of overall and special fitness of female athletes specializing in two Olympic distances differed a little and was shown in the following values r (Tab. 3). Two indices of strength endurance (bench press and pull down) significantly correlated with all indices of special physical fitness of female athletes, except for efficiency of starting stride. Maximum strength of back extensors was closely correlated only with two qualities of special endurance (300 m rowing (-0,790)) and speed endurance (3х100 m rowing (-0,738). The correlations between the index of 50 m running and indices of special physical fitness in this group of subjects were not detected.

Table 3. The interdependence between indices of overall and special physical fitness of qualified female athletes performing at both distances of 200 and 500 m

 

 

Indices of overall physical fitness

1

2

3

4

Indices of special physical fitness

1

-0,871

-0,761

0,092

-0,396

2

-0,853

-0,795

0,028

-0,462

3

-0,550

-0,361

0,257

-0,031

4

-0,721

-0,799

-0,134

-0,790

5

-0,723

-0,828

0,130

-0,610

6

-0,758

-0,811

0,083

-0,610

7

-0,765

-0,817

0,012

-0,738

Notes: 1. Indices of overall physical fitness: 1 – bench press 25 kg per 1, 2 – pull down 30 kg a min, 3 - 50 m running from high start, 4 - deadlift dynamometry. 2. Indices of special physical fitness 1 – 50 m rowing from standstill, s, 2 - 50 m flying rowing, s 3 – efficiency of starting stride, s, 4 – 300 m rowing 300, s, 5 - 750 m rowing, s, 6 - 4х250 m rowing, s, 7 - 3х100 m rowing, s. 3. Critical value r ³ 0,632 at p < 0,05.

Conclusion. The analysis of the findings revealed significant (р<0,05) correlations between the fitness indicators, showing various aspects of the overall and special fitness, regardless the distances female athletes competed in. The ones competing at the 200 meter distance had 10 correlations, 500 m – 19 and in both of the distances – 14, proving that the result at the 200 meter distance is mostly related to the genotype [5].

However, most of the correlations indicate to the essential role of both special and overall physical training in the system of training qualified female kayakists. The ones specializing in 200 meter run had most of the correlations between maximum power and the indicators of special physical fitness. 500 meter run - between strength endurance (bench press) (6) and maximum power and special physical fitness (4). All-round athletes - between strength endurance (deadlift and bench press) and special physical fitness.

References

  1. Rowing: textbook for institutes of physical education / ed. by A.K. Chuprun. - Moscow: Fizkultura i sport, 1987. – 288 P. (In Russian)
  2. Zemlakov, V.E. Physical training of paddlers:  / V.E. Zemlakov. - Kharkov: Oldie-plus, 2000. – 206 P. (In Russian)
  3. Linets, M.M. The basics of the technique of motor characteristics: study guide for higher schools of physical education / M.M. Linets. - Lviv: Shtabar, 1997. - 207 P. (In Russian)
  4.  Platonov, V.N. The system of training Olympic athletes: Olympiyskaya literatura / V.N. Platonov. - Kiev: 2004. - 808 P. (In Russian)
  5. Seredina, A.A. Fast kayaks / A.A. Seredina. - Moscow: Fizkultura i sport, 1982. – 80 P. (In Russian)
  6. Chichkan, O.A. Physical training of young female kayakists during pre-basic training: abstract of Ph.D. thesis. / O.A. Chichkan. - Lviv: LSIPC, 2004. – 19 P. (In Russian)

 

Author’s contacts: chehanyuk@gmail.com