E.S. Sadovnikov, associate professor, Ph.D.
O.E. Andryuschenko, Ph.D.
Volgograd state university, Volgograd
Key words: healthy lifestyle, technologization, system mechanisms, recreational activity.
Introduction. The human ability to control his or her vital activity gave rise to the technological civilization. Its products - technologies - have transformed into special formations and been singled out from activity with time. The process also applied to the pedagogical science, where a change from the individualistic intuitive approach to unification and standardization of vocational activity is being observed when solving educative tasks.
Recently representatives of various humanitarian sciences have become especially interested in the issues of using various pedagogical technologies, intended to save and promote health, including schoolchildren and university students. Sports and recreational technology (SRT) is a type of activity aimed to achieve and maintain the physical and spiritual well-being, reduce the risk of diseases by means of physical culture. This activity includes application of specific knowledge on the organization and implementation of SRT and is presented in such forms as, for example, running, swimming, walking, bodybuilding, aerobics, fitness, shaping, etc. Design of modern physical and recreational technologies includes diagnostic of health level, goal-setting, development of objectives of the recreational program, testing physical fitness and implementation of the developed plan.
The purpose of the study was to analyze theoretical and methodological approaches to interpretation of the category of technologization of recreational activity.
Materials and methods. The main methods of the study were abstraction (idealization, schematization, allocation of essential bases), experimenting with schemes and models (checking their meaningfulness, conciseness and practicality), logical-historical analysis.
Results of the study. The passport of the specialization 13.00.04 - "Theory and methodology of physical training, sports training, recreational and adaptive physical culture" includes a section on sports and recreational technologies which provides conducting of a research based on their content and directions, as well as system mechanisms for the construction of physical and recreational technologies. It may seem that the construction of physical and recreational technologies is not entirely correct, since according to the formal features the result of the design activity is the product as a construct; whereas a result of the design - the project; modeling - the model, then the technology is a product of technologization, which implies a broader concept and usually includes several technologies.
According to V.L. Glazychev, technological culture originates along with the development of civilization. He noted that "civilization - is a culture transformed by the reflected technology, which comes into effect, together with the development of the city and the kingdom" . The definition of "technology" has been the subject of discussions in human culture since the 5th century BC. For example, in Plato's "Politics" there is a dialogue between a Foreigner and Socrates, where the Foreigner asks the philosopher if science and art are producing only knowledge. The philosopher replied that it is inseparable from the activity, for example the construction creates "bodies", which had never existed before. "This knowledge contained by nature in its activities, is what we are interested in the technology and the technologizing" .
The next reflection link is found in Plato's "Laws", which states that people from their childhood should "practice" by means of game that in turn will reveal the child’s tendencies and talents towards a particular activity [cf. by: 5]. For the first time the process of learning is presented in such an expanded form in one of the first structures in which an awareness of the special model representation of activities and its implementation via a special education process is being worked through. According to V.L. Glazychev, technologization is a purely practical activity that is developed in inseparable conjunction with the historical and cultural context. Initially, technology was integrated into the activity and technologization could only be possible and realizable if the goal setting and problematization had already been implemented. All this is the basis for the design of the SRT. It is believed that construction is the final step of the design process, and the formation of technological picture is possible when solving a complex task by breaking it into the simplest mechanisms and links between them. Assembly of the process - is a model of the technologizing process, which has duration in time and includes the development of a system of procedures for working with operations.
The analysis of literature sources and the practical experience on the development (design, construction) of physical and recreational technology shows that experts allow deviation from the essence of the process of technologizing in two directions: first, when the stages of technologization are ignored and as a result an optimization of this or that method takes place, instead of the technologization itself which, as discussed below, has its own strict procedures and stages. Thus, the design is carried out only at the procedural level (the final stage), where there are not so many of the process links and even fewer assembly options. An example is the development of SRT at the level of motor activity when various techniques in the field of physical culture and sport are exposed to technologization. In this case, the output product of SRT usually turns out rather ineffective. In another case, a work is being carried out to create such SRT when development is based on a scheme aimed at addressing tasks alien to technologization. Thus, some authors believe that the development of a sports and recreational technology should be implemented in the framework of research logic, which includes analytical, search, synthetic, laboratory studies, experimental verification of effectiveness of the technology and creation of innovative software and methodical documentation .
These facts further actualize the methodological problem of the technologization of the healthy lifestyle formation. The essence of the fundamental methodological principle (according to G.P. Shchedrovitskiy) is in presenting extremely stringent requirements for methods of analysis and description of such systems, as activity, thinking, designing, technologization etc. This description is possible in three ways: as a self-developing whole, in the form of a constantly changing element of a developing whole or in the form of artificially implemented organization of some particular whole, but with a common idea - to present a model of development.
According to G.P. Schedrovitskiy, scientific (research) and project types of mental activity are fundamentally different from each other. The project unlike the scientific - is a more complex form of mental activity, as it is based on a certain goal achievement, rather than a simple study of the object. Technologization implies transformation of the object, its transition into a different state, while the scientific activity does not set any other purpose rather than a study of an object. Technological knowledge shows how adequate the object is to achieve the objectives and what procedures can be carried out with it in order to achieve a certain goal. Scientific knowledge, according to G.P. Schedrovitskiy is a "Photograph" of the object regardless of the purposes and the ways of influencing it. Another difference between these activities is that scientific knowledge requires a full picture of all the information whereas technological knowledge requires only a special one.
Fundamental differences are also singled out by Y.V. Gromyko and N.V. Gromyko: the study is timeless and the design is associated with temporary modalities and aims for the future; the product of research is knowledge, and the product of design - is project; knowledge requires the criterion of truth, whereas project requires a feasibility criterion; research is aimed at an ideal object, design - at the organizational form; the main stages of the design process are plan, implementation of the plan, reflection of the implementation, rethinking of the plan, whereas the stages of a process of scientific research are: posing the question, hypothesizing on the consistence of the object, testing the hypothesis on the material, object modeling, mapping their way of working with the cultural model, etc. .
However, despite all the differences the study and the design in education are a special area of study, since these types of mental activity acquire their own specific forms and features, as well as a close relationship between them.
In our opinion, based on the work of G.P. Schedrovitskiy technologization is a process which involves the following procedures: goal-setting - problematization, division - simplification; extraction - assembly.
The technologization in the field of physical culture is the process of integration of SRT in man’s recreational activities, it is not limited by motor activity, but is also seen in a special mental activity. Like the rest of the design process of SRT, it is built on the principles of project-based thinking rather than studying the research object (natural-scientific approach), the design approach aimed at technologization differs by setting and achieving goals. One of these attempts of technologization can be attributed to our early works [3, 4], where there are all the signs of the application of the design approach, starting with the problematization and setting practical goals as well as the stages of technologization, and the final product in the form of SRT (the example is the aftereffect from the use of heavy loads in sports and recreational activities), moreover, in those works there can be traced a way of transformation of process into mechanism. Due to the complexity of this process an important place is occupied by the problem of correlation and links of the categories of "process and mechanism." Any development, including the formation of a healthy lifestyle involves, on the one hand, the process of change, and on the other – a mechanism for this change. Typically, the graphical image of these concepts is represented differently: the process is shown in the parametric form, and the mechanism - in the structural, that does not hinder the understanding of the mentioned above concepts as a whole. Duality of the "process-mechanism" concept suggests that the mechanisms are there to ensure the process of change of the object, while they would remain unchanged or modified by the process to such an extent that they collapse. In our case, it is especially important that technologization of the process of forming a healthy lifestyle has made mechanisms and the process stable and integral. This approach towards the technologization of the process of forming a healthy lifestyle implies structuring the theories, ranking and putting in order the mechanisms that ensure the development, allocating the links within an integral system.
Conclusion. Hence, technologization in the sphere of recreational physical culture is a process of introducing sports and recreational technologies in human recreational activity, which is not limited by motor activity, but is displayed in the special thinking activity too. The technologization process includes such procedures as goal-setting-problematization; division- simplification and extraction-assembly. Like the whole construction process, health and fitness technologies are based on the project way of thinking as opposed to scientific, more complex way of thinking, since it is based on achievement of a specific goal, but not just an object examination. Like any development, the process of formation of healthy lifestyle presupposes, on the one hand, the process of change and, on the other hand, - the mechanism of this change. In our case the most important task is the one when technologization of healthy lifestyle forms stable and integral recreational mechanisms and processes.
- Gromyko, Yu.V. Design consciousness / Yu.V. Gromyko, N.V. Gromyko. – Moscow, 1998. (In Russian)
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- Sadovnikov, E.S. The optimum of well-being in healthy lifestyle / E.S. Sadovnikov, O.E. Andryuschenko // Uchenye zapiski univerdsiteta im. P.F. Lesgafta. – 2012. – № 7(89). – P. 121–126. (In Russian)
- Sadovnikov, E.S. Ways of solution of recreational tasks in the university process of physical education / E.S. Sadovnikov // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. – 1989. – № 11. – P. 38–39. (In Russian)
- Glazychev, V.L. Technology and technologization (Bulgaria, 2002), School of cultural policy // http://www.shkp.ru/lib/archive/methodologies/technology. (In Russian)
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