Substantiation of Efficiency of Technology of Problem-Based Learning in Physical Education and Sports Universities

Фотографии: 

N.V. Logachev, candidate
Russian state university of physical culture, sport, youth and tourism (SCOLIPC), Moscow

Key words: process, methodology, methods, students, education, learning.

Introduction. Formation of student's didactic professional skills and abilities is the main goal of any university, which is related to changing from an established training process to filling it with information and methods. Using innovative technologies of problem-based learning is theoretically important, and educationally and professionally justified. The technology of problem-based learning is based on the obtaining of new knowledge by students by means of solving theoretical and practical problems and tasks that appear in problematic situations. A problematic situation appears when a person has a cognitive need and intellectual abilities to solve a problem in the case of some conflict or contradiction between new and old, known and unknown, given and searched, conditions and requirements. This process comprises several stages: perception of conflict situation, problem formulation on the base of situation analysis, solution of the problem, including postulation, change and checking of hypotheses and solution verification [1-3].

The problem-based learning technology is a method of didactic algorithmization, conditioning full-value assimilation of the courseware and formation of the corresponding mind-set and mental actions. It is accompanied by the gradual advancement form recognizing the objects and features of play activity to the display of studied information and actions and then to performance of actions based on specific knowledge with further designing the new orientation basis and acquired information by solving nonstandard tasks in conditions of uncertainty. It completely corresponds to the proved didactic progress, being achieved by the transfer from one to another, more sophisticated, complexity level [5, 7, 8].

The purpose of the study was to estimate efficiency of the problem-based technology of activation of educational and cognitive activity of students of profession-oriented specialities of a university of physical education.

Organization and methods. The educational experiment was carried out within the frames of the educational course “Sport training methodology” with two groups of third year students of Moscow Institute of Physical culture and Sport, namely control (65 persons) and experimental (75 persons) groups [6].

The studies revealed higher efficiency of the problem-based pedagogic technology as compared to traditional teaching methodologies which do not provide special application of the means and methods aimed at the formation and development of abilities and skills that are extremely important for active learning and cognitive activity.

The experimental educational technology was based on a block modular approach. The stages of learning information were structured in the following way:

– analytical and review lecture on a specific problem, outlining stages and logic of training process (using basic structural logic schemes);

– development of information by means of focal and “prevailing” (problem retrospective) topics (lectures, seminars, problem tasks for individual work);

– laboratory class on a problem.

While using the technology the following methods of work with information were applied: key words, semantic units, referencing, annotations, analysis, comparison, comparison, generalization, pattern recognition, as well as focal synopses and methods of mastering techniques of organization of intellectual work.

As a whole, the problem-based technology was an open educational system that enabled to organize both classroom and individual (remote) learning due to information availability.

Results and discussion. The studies showed that using the means and methods of problem-based learning, individual differences in the dynamics of control indices of students were observed, that confirms the common concept of varying individual perceptivities to pedagogical effects and different time of learning. At the same time, higher efficiency of the technology should be provided in conditions of group learning at a high school [4].

An initial analysis of individual results of subjects did not reveal to the full extent the peculiarities of the effect of learning technique on the students that had various initial background.

In this regard, a correlation analysis of the data was made (Table).

The identity of the results shown by the students of the control and the experimental groups in their initial condition for solving tasks of 3 complexity levels proves the uniformity of the research groups. It is worthwhile to mention that the interrelation of efficiency of the first and second level corresponds to average positive value in the control (r = 0.531) and the experimental (r = 0.542) groups. Similar results were obtained for interrelation of the first and third levels in the control (r = 0.512) and the experimental (r = 0.538) groups.

It is to be mentioned that the results for the second- and third-level task solutions are closely related, that is evidenced by the correlation coefficient values for the control (r = 0.880) and the experimental (r = 0.862) groups.

When solving the first-level tasks in both of the groups, the values of the correlation coefficient (r) showing the close correlation between the efficiency coefficients compared to the initial level and results obtained at the previous stage were found.

A similar trend was revealed for the values of statistical interaction between the values of individual increments between the levels.

Table. Interaction between the values studied

Task level of complexity

Control group

Experimental group

1st level

 

1

(initial)

2

(intermediate)

1

(initial)

2

(intermediate)

2(intermediate)

0.943

Х

0.917

Х

3 (final)

0.892

0.935

0.945

0.240

1-2

0.256

Х

0.010

Х

2-3

0.132

0.108

0.513

0.293

1-3

0.274

Х

0.514

Х

2nd level

2 (intermediate)

0.974

Х

0.933

Х

3 (final)

0.945

0.972

0.925

0.931

1-2

0.040

Х

-0.050

Х

2-3

0.025

0.024

-0.034

-0.107

1-3

-0.005

Х

0.100

Х

3rd level

2 (intermediate)

0.895

Х

0.480

Х

3 (final)

0.918

0.965

0.566

0.752

1-2

0.297

Х

-0.427

Х

2-3

0.208

0.001

-0.094

-0.622

1-3

0.435

Х

-0.580

Х

 

When settling the second-level tasks, the trend of close correlation between current and previous test indices for both groups was revealed. In the control group the correlation coefficient was (r = 0.945 – 0.974), while in the experimental one it equaled (r = 0.925 – 0.933). At the same time the individual growth values were independent of the values at previous levels.

For the third-level tasks in both groups, a close correlation between the final indexes of efficiency and their initial values and between efficiency index values at previous and subsequent levels was registered (r = 0.895 – 0.965).

It is worth to mention that the studies revealed contradictory trends in individual dynamics of the indices in the control and the experimental groups when solving the most complicated tasks. The final index of efficiency growth in the test in the control group had a weak positive correlation (r = 0.435) with the initial value obtained in the first test.

In the experimental group this correlation was negative (r = -580), that characterized the average value of statistical interaction. Therefore, in the control group a trend of higher efficiency growth of students with higher initial background was observed, whereas in the experimental group, contrarily, higher efficiency growth was shown by students with lower initial background.

As the students of experimental group showed higher efficiency at all stages of experiment and had superior indices compared to the students of the control group, it can be concluded that the new technology differs from traditional one both in a higher total efficiency, estimated by average group test results, and in more selective influence on students having lower background.

The mentioned above tendencies were most apparent in the control group at the 1st level of the experiment (between the first and the second tests), whereas in the experimental group they were more pronounced at the second level (between the second and the third tests), and the correlation coefficient of growth at those levels, compared to previous levels, was r = 0.297 and r = -0.622, respectively.

Conclusion. Nowadays the use of modern educational technologies in training is one of the principal conditions of modernization of the educational system, including the training program of specialists in the field of secondary professional education.

The choice of educational technologies is to be stipulated by the need for organizing the educational process this way, optimizing education and training by reducing the reproductive activity, decreasing students' load and more efficient use of class hours.

References

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