Improvement of physical and technical fitness of junior shot-putters by means of training loads of various intensity


Postgraduate Dali Marah
Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow

Objective of the study was to identify the effects of various training loads on the development of physical and technical skills of shot-putters.
Methods and structure of the study. The study included an analysis of the research papers devoted to the physical and technical training of shot-putters of different ages and fitness levels.
Results and conclusions. Training loads of various intensity affect the process of track-and-field training and improvement of the exercise performance technique in different ways. At the stage of motor skill formation, they mainly use training loads of low and average intensity. There is a high level of correlation between the volumes of strength exercises and the dynamics of the development of speed-strength qualities. The wave-like, step-by-step increase in the volume of training loads and their intensity is an important factor in ensuring the development of the speed and explosive qualities.
An additional factor affecting the level of complexity of technical exercises is the use of visualization tools, such as video recording, to provide athletes with objective information about the accuracy of performance of the competitive exercise and relevant details of the correct technique.
Sports practice and special studies show that an effective means to reach the best of one’s speed-strength potential is to perform a basic exercise of near-maximum and maximum intensity (conjugated influence method).
In developing the speed-strength qualities at the junior age, preference is given to exercises performed at high speed, at which the correct technique of movements is preserved (so-called "controlled speed").
The need to improve shot-putters’ competitive performance necessitates an in-depth study of the training process and search for the ways to improve it further so that training loads of various intensity would exert different effects on the process of training and improvement of the shot-put technique and athletes’ physical qualities (strength, speed-strength qualities, etc.).

Keywords: physical training of junior athletes, technical training of junior athletes, shot-put.


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