Popular physical activities in Russian Federation: preferences rating survey

PhD, Associate Professor E.N. Latushkina1
Dr. Hab., Professor O.N. Stepanova1, 2
Dr. Sc. Psych., Associate Professor E.A. Shmeleva1, 3
1Russian State Social University, Moscow
2Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow
3Ivanovsk State University, Shuya

Corresponding author: elena_latushkina@mail.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to survey, analyze and rate the popular physical activity in the Russian Federation.

Methods and structure of the study. We used for the purposes of the study: an online questionnaire survey and statistical mathematical data processing SPSS Statistics 22 software toolkit with graphical presentations and content analyses. We sampled for the questionnaire survey the national population (n=846) in 48 regions of the country dominated by (n=766) the Ivanovo Oblast (n=363), Moscow city (n=236), Moscow Oblast (n=86), Omsk Oblast (n=24), St. Petersburg city (n=18), Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (n=16), Vladimir Oblast (n=15) and Kaliningrad Oblast (n=8) regions. The sample was mostly (n=729, 86.2%) urban, with the rural and small town populations making up only 4.5% and 9.3% of the sample (n=38 and n=79), respectively; with the men and women groups making up 36.3% and 63.7% of the sample (n-307 and n=539), respectively; and with 85.6% of the sample aged 18-59 years (most active group).

Results and conclusion. The questionnaire survey found some 20% of the sample determined for habitual physical education and sports; more than 25% prepared for habitual physical activity on a health-sensitive basis; 1.1% skeptical or unprepared for habitual physical activity; and 2.4% uncertain. In the men and women groups, 75.6% and 68.8% reported determined for habitual physical activity; 1.0% and 1.1% unprepared for it; 21.5% and  27.5% prepared on a health-sensitive basis; and 1.9% and 2.6% uncertain on the point, respectively.

The physical activity preferences of the sample were found gender- and age-specific with apparent influences of the social settings, and this is the reason why a special emphasis is to be made on the socializing aspects of the modern physical activity. The questionnaire survey found the top-20 physical activity favored by the national population including health walking, jogging and cycling (triad 1); fitness, swimming and volleyball (triad 2); football, dancing and bodybuilding (triad 3), followed by yoga, basketball, workout, table tennis, skiing, active team sports and entertainments, aerobics, martial arts, ice/ roller skating, Nordic walking, and ice hockey.

Keywords: physical activity, Russian population, activity preferences, physical education planning.

Background. Presidential Decree of July 21, 2020 No. 474 "On the national goals and strategic progress missions of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030" [3]; "Physical Education and Sports Development” National Program approved by the Governmental Decree of April 15, 2014 No. 302 [4];  "Sports – Life Norm" Federal Project and some other key provisions have set a framework for the popular mass physical education and sport system [1, 2]; and we believe it could be beneficial to facilitate these policies and missions by the popular physical activity surveys to rate the mass physical activities by popularity levels.

Objective of the study was to survey, analyze and rate the popular physical activity in the Russian Federation.

Methods and structure of the study. We used for the purposes of the study: an online questionnaire survey and statistical mathematical data processing SPSS Statistics 22 software toolkit with graphical presentations  and content analyses. We sampled for the questionnaire survey the national population (n=846) in 48 regions of the country dominated by (n=766) the Ivanovo Oblast (n=363), Moscow city (n=236), Moscow Oblast (n=86), Omsk Oblast (n=24), St. Petersburg city (n=18), Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (n=16), Vladimir Oblast (n=15) and Kaliningrad Oblast (n=8) regions. The sample was mostly (n=729, 86.2%) urban, with the rural and small town populations making up only 4.5% and 9.3% of the sample (n=38 and n=79), respectively; with the men and women groups making up 36.3% and 63.7% of the sample (n-307 and n=539), respectively; and with 85.6% of the sample aged 18-59 years (most active group): see Figure 1.

Figure 1. Age and gender groups in the sample

Results and discussion. The questionnaire survey found some 20% of the sample determined for habitual physical education and sports; more than 25% prepared for habitual physical activity on a health-sensitive basis; 1.1% skeptical or unprepared for habitual physical activity; and 2.4% uncertain. In the men and women groups, 75.6% and 68.8% reported determined for habitual physical activity; 1.0% and 1.1% unprepared for it; 21.5% and  27.5% prepared on a health-sensitive basis; and 1.9% and 2.6% uncertain on the point, respectively.

The World Health Organization recommends the physical activity averaging at least 60-plus minutes a day for the 15-17 year-olds; and 150-300 middle-intensity or 75 high-intensity minutes per week for the 18-65-plus year-olds. Given in Table 1 are the sample opinions on the need in healthy daily physical activity.

Table 1. Need in healthy daily physical activity reported by the age and gender groups, %

Age groups

30min

60min

90-120min

Gender groups

m

w

m

w

m

w

12-minus

16,7

 

33,3

 

50,0

100,0

12-15

12,5

20,0

12,5

20,0

75,0

60,0

16-17

6,9

15,6

27,6

40,0

65,5

44,4

18-21

9,9

15,2

35,2

44,4

54,9

40,4

22-34

10,1

14,2

42,2

46,6

47,7

39,2

35-59

8,1

25,0

40,7

50,7

51,2

24,3

60-75

 

60,0

 

30,0

 

10,0

76-plus

100,0

 

 

 

 

 

Total

9,97

18,15

37,62

44,63

52,41

37,22

The above healthy physical activity needs reported by the sample were found even higher than the recommended levels. However, the actual popular physical activity, as reported by N.A. Khorkina and M.V. Lopatina, are still under the recommended global WHO standards, despite some growth [5].

The sample mentioned 51 physical activity types in the questionnaire survey. Ranking in the top-20 were health walking, jogging and cycling (triad 1); fitness, swimming and volleyball (triad 2); football, dancing and bodybuilding (triad 3) followed by yoga, basketball, workout, table tennis, skiing, active team sports and entertainments, aerobics, martial arts, ice/ roller skating, Nordic walking, and ice hockey (see Figure 2). Mentioned in addition were also the traditional physical activity dominated by health walking, gardening and mowing.

 

Figure 2. Physical activity preferences of the sample

Given in Table 2 hereunder are the age- and gender-group physical activity preferences. Thus the 60-plus year-olds reported preferring health walking and Nordic walking; the 12-minus year-olds jogging, with the boys also favoring cycling and martial arts, and girls – bodybuilding. The 12-15 year-olds prioritized walking, with the boys also preferring football and basketball, and girls jogging. The 16-17 year-olds prefer jogging and cycling, with the young men and women also favoring workouts and health walking, respectively.

Table 2. Physical activities reportedly preferred by the age and gender groups

Physical activity

Mentions

12-minus

12-15

16-17

18-21

22-34

35-59

60-75

Total

 

m

w

m

w

m

w

m

w

m

w

m

w

m

w

Health walking

2

1

4

5

6

16

17

74

40

67

34

64

-

4

334

Jogging

3

5

2

6

12

15

22

48

35

31

25

28

-

-

232

Cycling

4

3

2

2

7

12

11

48

21

40

29

31

-

-

210

Fitness

1

-

-

1

1

6

13

40

18

32

7

23

-

-

142

Swimming

2

1

2

3

-

3

6

16

12

18

14

20

-

1

99

Volleyball

-

-

-

2

6

6

9

31

7

7

14

5

-

-

87

Football

2

1

3

1

5

1

17

3

24

3

8

1

-

-

69

Dancing

-

-

-

-

-

8

2

28

 

14

 

8

-

-

60

Bodybuilding

-

4

1

3

2

2

7

5

16

4

8

6

-

-

58

Yoga

-

-

-

-

-

2

1

11

-

18

-

19

-

-

51

Basketball

-

-

3

-

4

4

11

5

11

1

2

1

-

-

42

Workout

-

-

-

1

7

1

13

3

10

4

1

2

-

-

42

Table tennis

-

-

-

2

2

-

3

12

4

5

9

3

-

1

41

Skiing

-

-

-

-

-

1

4

3

5

6

8

12

-

-

39

Team sports, fun

-

1

1

2

-

1

1

11

5

7

-

2

-

-

31

Aerobics

-

3

2

-

-

4

1

6

2

6

-

7

-

-

31

Martial arts

3

1

-

-

2

1

6

2

11

1

3

-

-

-

30

Ice/ roller skating

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

8

3

3

1

6

-

-

23

Nordic walking

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

3

1

1

1

6

-

2

15

Ice hockey

-

-

-

-

2

2

1

3

4

-

-

-

-

-

12

Total mentions:

1648


Note: m- men, w- women

Conclusion. The physical activity preferences of the sample were found gender- and age-specific with apparent influences of the social settings, and this is the reason why a special emphasis is to be made on the socializing aspects of the modern physical activity. The questionnaire survey found the top-20 physical activity favored by the national population including health walking, jogging and cycling (triad 1); fitness, swimming and volleyball (triad 2); football, dancing and bodybuilding (triad 3), followed by yoga, basketball, workout, table tennis, skiing, active team sports and entertainments, aerobics, martial arts, ice/ roller skating, Nordic walking, and ice hockey.

The survey was completed under Contract № 0373100110420000008 for ‘Modern popular PA forms and methods customizable to the health conditions on an age- and gender-specific basis’ Research Project of the Federal Physical Education Research Institute

References

  1. Lubysheva L.I. National project "Sport as life norm": algorithmization of actions. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2020. no. 5. P. 97.
  2. Makhov A.S., Pravdov M.A., Shmeleva E.A. et al. Involvement of population in regular physical education and sports practices abroad. Nauchny poisk. 2020. No. 3 (37). pp. 52-57.
  3. On National Goals and Strategic Tasks of the Development of the Russian Federation for the Period until 2030. Ukaz Prezidenta Rossii dated July 21 2020. No. 474. https://ipbd.ru/doc/0001202007210012/
  4. On the approval of the state program of the Russian Federation "Development of physical education and sports". Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 302 dated April 2014. No. 302. http://base.garant.ru/70643480/
  5. Khorkina N.A., Lopatina M.V. Features of physical activity of working Russians: empirical analysis. Voprosy statistiki. 2019. No. 26 (11). pp. 45-56.