Physiological changes in cardiovascular system with vestibular irritation among representatives of team sports

Dr.Biol., Professor S.Yu. Zavalishina1
PhD, Associate Professor E.S. Kachenkova2
1Russian State Social University, Moscow
2Institute of Natural Sciences and Sports Technologies (Moscow City University), Moscow

Corresponding author: alexm-77@list.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to analyze the dynamics changes in the cardiovascular system with vestibular irritation among representatives of game sports.

Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study were 63 males (23.6±1.4 years), second-class athletes or higher level from team sports, with at least three years of sports experience: hockey (n=21), volleyball (n=22), football (n=20).

The Control Group (n=19) was made of the apparently healthy students (22.1±0.9 years old), who performed significant muscle loads only during the university physical education classes.

V.I. Voyachek standard turning test to determine functional changes in the cardiovascular system under the influence of vestibular irritation. The cardiovascular response was evaluated by recording the heart rate and blood pressure before and after the turning test (standard option - 5 rotations in 10 s). To include a large number of receptors of the semi-circular canals of the vestibular system, the subjects were asked to rotate turning their heads in both directions (5 rotations in 10 s). To increase the size of the rotation on the vestibular system, the duration of V.I. Voyachek standard turning test was doubled (10 rotations in 20 s).

Results and conclusion. According to the findings, the cardiovascular rate in the hockey players, volleyball players, and footballers was within the normal limits: 64.2±0.59; 61.0±0.75 and 59.6±0.59 bpm, respectively. In Control Group, this rate was also within the norm, though slightly higher than in EG (70.2±0.93 bpm). The subjects’ heart rate in response to the vestibular load increased in both groups.

Regular team sports driven training activities increase the level of adaptation to vestibular loads and train the muscle of the heart. In different game sports, motor actions contribute to the formation of a pronounced heart reaction to the turning test with a change in the head position in space. The physiological shifts in the myocardium were seen in the heart rate changes and were most biologically advantageous for the footballers, slightly surpassing those in the volleyball and hockey players. In team sports, the vascular tone and associated blood pressure level do not seem to be clearly related to the specific movements.

Keywords: volleyball, football, hockey, vestibular system, cardiovascular system.

Background. Rational muscle activity can significantly enhance metabolic and protective mechanisms of the body [2, 9]. Structured motor activity improves the functionality of the vital organs: heart, lungs, endocrine glands, vessels, and brain [10]. Physical loads activate the vestibular system, which is responsible for the optimum position of the body in space and precise motor actions due to rational redistribution of muscular tone [8]. The importance of the optimal functioning of the vestibular system arises from its involvement in ensuring adequate movement of the body parts in space and its close interaction with the autonomic systems [3]. The influence of the vestibular system on the cardiovascular one [5, 7] is important to ensure the current physical status in general and fitness level in particular.

Objective of the study was to analyze the dynamics changes in the cardiovascular system with vestibular irritation among representatives of team sports.

Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study were 63 males (23.6±1.4 years), second-class athletes or higher level from team sports, with at least three years of sports experience: hockey (n=21), volleyball (n=22), football (n=20).

The Control Group (n=19) was made of the apparently healthy students (22.1±0.9 years old), who performed significant muscle loads only during the university physical education classes.

V.I. Voyachek standard turning test to determine functional changes in the cardiovascular system under the influence of vestibular irritation. The cardiovascular response was evaluated by recording the heart rate and blood pressure before and after the turning test (standard option - 5 rotations in 10 s). To include a large number of receptors of the semi-circular canals of the vestibular system, the subjects were asked to rotate turning their heads in both directions (5 rotations in 10 s). To increase the size of the rotation on the vestibular system, the duration of V.I. Voyachek standard turning test was doubled (10 rotations in 20 s).

Results and discussion. According to the findings, the cardiovascular rate in the hockey players, volleyball players, and footballers was within the normal limits: 64.2±0.59; 61.0±0.75 and 59.6±0.59 bpm, respectively. In Control Group, this rate was also within the norm, though slightly higher than in Experimental Group (70.2±0.93 bpm). The subjects’ heart rate in response to the vestibular load increased in both groups.

In the classic version of the Voyachek test, the heart rate was found to increase in both groups: hockey players - by 3.6±0.63 bpm, volleyball players – by 3.2±0.52 bpm, footballers – by 2.1±0.19 bpm; CG subjects - by 5.6±0.19 bpm (p<0.01).

The results of the analysis of changes in the heart rate indicated lower rates in the test with the rightward inclination of the head than in that with the leftward inclination. The detected differences in the heart rate response among the team sports representatives were small, yet statistically significant.

The vestibular system adaptation during smooth curvilinear movements is particularly effective when the head is tilted to the right. Obviously, in game sports, this process develops to different degrees. It is believed that a change in the head position is more typical for footballers who have the weakest heart rate response to the head rotation to the right -2.5±0.16 bpm.

Apparently, due to slightly more active motor actions including rotational movements, footballers have a higher level of heart adaptation to sports activities [6].

The study included an analysis of changes in the heart rate of the team sports representatives when performing rotational movements of varying length. It was found that when doubling the duration of the turning test, the vestibular irritation increased by 69.6% in the non-athletes, without a clear proportionality to the increase in the number of rotations. The observed dependence was reversed in the athletes: the weaker the response to 5 rotations, the more pronounced it is to 10 rotations (for the hockey players - 66.7%, volleyball players - 81.2%, footballers – by a factor of 2.1).

In the classic version of the test, the hockey players’ heart rate increased by 3.6±0.63 bpm, while under the influence of 10 rotations - by 6.0±0.69 bpm. For the volleyball players, this rate was 3.2±0.52 and 5.8±0.47 bpm, respectively. For the footballers, the equivalent values were 2.1±0.19 and 4.5±0.41 bpm, respectively. Therefore, the cardiac reaction in football players is more pronounced, which stimulates the metabolic processes in the tissues due to the activation of the blood flow in the tissues under increased sports loads [1, 4].

The systolic blood pressure rates were as follows: 112.2±0.52 mmHg for the hockey players, 112.6±0.59 mmHg for the volleyball, and 110.8±0.64 mmHg for the footballers. This rate in CG was slightly higher - 124.5±1.42 mmHg (p<0.05).

Under rotational loads, the subjects’ systolic blood pressure increased at all the head positions. The increase in the systolic blood pressure in the non-athletes and all athletes was similar: 4.2±0.53; 4.0±0.61; 3.9±0.39 and 3.8±0.76 mmHg, respectively. The detected stability in the dynamics of the systolic blood pressure under rotational loads was maintained despite the changes in the head position in all groups.

During the test with the doubled rotation time, the systolic blood pressure rate in the team sports representatives increased by about 35.0% as opposed to the classic version of the test. The increase in the systolic blood pressure in the test with the doubled rotation time was significantly higher in the non-athletes - 115.0% (p<0.01) than in the regularly trained athletes.

The dynamics of the diastolic blood pressure rates in the athletes performing all types of rotational loads increased slightly in all cases and were comparable for all the testees. The identified features suggest a marked adaptation of the cardiovascular system of the representatives of game sports to rotational loads, as well as its large functional reserves.

Conclusion. Regular team sports driven training activities increase the level of adaptation to vestibular loads and train the muscle of the heart. In different game sports, motor actions contribute to the formation of a pronounced heart reaction to the turning test with a change in the head position in space. The physiological shifts in the myocardium were manifested in the heart rate changes and were most biologically advantageous for the footballers, slightly surpassing those in the volleyball and hockey players. In team sports, the vascular tone and associated blood pressure level do not seem to be clearly related to the specific movements.

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