Benefits of specific strength training model with water resistance control gear for rowing and canoeing sports elite

Dr. Hab., Professor P.V. Kvashuk1
Dr. Biol. A.V. Voronov1
PhD G.N. Semaeva1
PhD, Associate Professor I.N. Maslova2
1Federal Scienсe Center of Physical Culture and Sports (VNIIFK), Moscow
2Voronezh State Institute of Physical Culture (VGIFK), Voronezh

Objective of the study – identification of effective additional stimuli that increase the resistance of the aquatic environment for the development of special strength qualities of rowers in kayaks and canoes on the basis of studying the electrical activity of the muscles that carry the main load during the movement of the boat.
Research methods and organization. Electromyographic activity of the muscles was recorded using the hardware and software complex "SportLab" (Russia), consisting of the 8-channel telemetric electromyography, accelerometer, video camera, and a synchronization device.
In a series of experiments with the participation of kayak and canoe rowers, the surface electromyographic activity of the muscles of the right and left lower / upper extremities and the rowers' trunk and the boat's accelerogram in the longitudinal direction were recorded.
In total 5 variants were studied for work on canoe and a kayak when performing exercises with a competitive speed, hydraulic braking and weighting the boat with weights of 6, 8 and 14 kg.
Results and conclusions. As a result of the study, the features within electrical activity of the main muscle groups of kayakes and canoes rowers in different rowing modes were studied. It was found that the creation of additional stimuli to increase the resistance of the aquatic environment during rowing can significantly change not only the amplitude of the electrical signal, but also the synchronization of the electrical activity of the muscles. This tendency increases with an increase in the value of the weight of the boat or the resistance of the hydraulic brake. It was revealed that weight to increase the resistance to movement when performing special strength exercises on the water should not exceed 5 - 7% of the athlete's weight. The most important factor that determines the effectiveness of special strength training for rowers in kayaks and canoes is the rowing pace, which must correspond to the competitive one.

Keywords: kayak and canoe, electrical muscle activity, strength training.

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