Workout intensity management standards for 6-7 year-old wrestlers
Dr. Biol. T.F. Abramova1
PhD A.I. Golovachev1
PhD T.M. Nikitina1
1Federal Scientific Center for Physical Culture and Sports (VNIIFK), Moscow
Objective of the study was to offer workout intensity management standards for the 6-7 year-old wrestlers based on the energy mechanisms functionality and physical fitness tests and analyses.
Methods and structure of the study. We sampled for the study, on the family and coach’s consent, three 7 year-old freestyle wrestlers having a two-year training experience, and tested them for: physical development (including body length and mass, BMI, muscle and fat mass, vital capacity, blood pressure and heart rate tests), physical fitness (including carpal strength, flexibility, standing long jump, shuttle sprint tests); speed-stepping treadmill tests till muscular failure (1.75 m/s stepped up by 0.25 m/s every 2 min). Exhaled carbon dioxide/ oxygen (CO2/ O2) was tested by Metalizer II Gas Analyzer test system (Cortex, Germany) and HR was tested prior to, during and after workouts with an ECG support. Blood lactate contents were tested after every workout stage in rehabilitation process. The tests were designed to fix the maximal aerobic capacity, anaerobic threshold and the oxygen uptake efficiency ratio. The anaerobic threshold range was verified by the pulmonary ventilation maximums with ventilation equivalents versus the lactate variations to obtain indirect anaerobic threshold rates and limits for the workout intensity zones.
Results and conclusion. Despite the individual differences in the run times and speeds and physiological energy costs, every sampled athlete was tested to mobilize mostly the anaerobic energy mechanisms in the failure workout tests, with the relative energy demand kept at certain level; and the same applies to efficiency of the aerobic-anaerobic transition mechanisms, whilst the lactic efficiency was tested relatively low. The study to produce the workout intensity zoning by the anaerobic metabolism threshold related HR found the age-specific threshold achieved at 170+ beats/min.
The key finding of the study is that the 6-7-year-old wrestlers’ anaerobic threshold is attained at 170+ beats/ min and may be effectively used for the workout zoning purposes. Workout intensities in excess of this level may result, as we found, in irregularities of the cardiovascular system adaptation to the sport-specific workloads in long-time trainings.
Keywords: physical working capacity, functionality of energy mechanisms, cardio-respiratory system, 6-7-year-old athletes.
- Serdyukovskaya G.N. [ed.] Organizatsiya meditsinskogo kontrolya za razvitiem i zdorovem doshkolnikov i shkolnikov na osnove massovykh skrining-testov i ikh ozdorovlenie v usloviyakh detskogo sada, shkoly [Organization of medical control over development and health of preschoolers and schoolchildren based on mass screening tests and their health improvement in kindergarten, school]. Moscow, 1995. 142 p.
- Abramova T.F., Nikitina T.M., Polfuntikova A.V. et al. Tempy fizicheskogo razvitiya i podgotovlennosti detey kak markery effektivnosti dvigatelnoy deyatelnosti [Physical development and physical fitness rates as markers of effectiveness of children's motor activity]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2020. No. 8. pp. 58–60.
- Armstrong N., Barker A.R., McManus A.M. Muscle metabolism changes with age and maturation: How do they relate to youth sport performance? Br. J Sports Med. 2015. Vol. 49. No 13. pp. 860–864
- O. Bar-Or Pediatric Sports Medicine for the Practitioner: From Physiologic Principles to Clinical Applications. Front Cover. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012. Medical. 376 p.
- Andersen L.B., Harro M., Sardinha L.B., Froberg K., Ekelund U., Brage S., Anderssen S.A. Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study). Lancet 2006: 368: 299–304.
- Skinner J.S. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism. Research quarterly for exercise and sport. 1980. 51 (1). pp. 234 – 248.
- Sollerhed A.-C., Ejlertsson G. Physical benefits of expanded physical education in primary school: findings from a 3-year intervention study in Sweden Scand J Med Sci Sports 2008: 18: 102–107.