Moscow society to promote physical development and its role in popularization of physical culture in late XIX - early XX centuries
PhD A.A. Perevoznikov
State budgetary educational institution School No. 1468 of Moscow
Objective of the study was to analyze the activities of the Moscow Society to Promote Physical Development and define its role in the dissemination and popularization of physical culture in the late XIX – early XX centuries.
Methods and structure of the study. The study included both general scientific (analysis, synthesis, description) and special historical (comparative-historical, retrospective) methods. Special attention was paid to the analysis of the archival sources of the Central State Archive of the City of Moscow.
Results and conclusions. The study included a comprehensive analysis of the society’s activities. We also analyzed the composition of the society and the contribution of its members to the popularization of physical activities, especially among children, women, and student youth. The difference between the pedagogical and sports societies was emphasized. The analysis of the activities of the Moscow Society to Promote Physical Development in the late XIX - early XX centuries allowed for the following conclusions: in the latter half of the XIX century, Russian society was developing an idea of the value of health, their interest in the issues of physical education was growing; the problem of physical development became a matter of interest to intellectuals: doctors, teachers, and scientists; societies to promote physical development were found in various cities of Russia, including Moscow, to spread physical education and sport knowledge; these societies ranked among "pedagogical", not "sports", since the educational and pedagogical function was put to the forefront of their activities; unlike the sports societies, where the majority of the founders were foreign subjects or citizens, the Russian Society to Promote Physical Development was founded by the Russian scientists, medical doctors, and teachers; the society contributed to the dissemination and popularization of physical culture and was at the origin of the national system of physical education, while paying special attention to physical development of children and women.
The findings can be extrapolated with corrections and allowances for the modern society: it is no secret that, in practice, early professionalization and provision of commercial services in the physical education and sports sector tend to overshadow the issues of popularization of and public involvement in physical education and sports activities.
Keywords: sports, sports club, sports society, physical development.
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