Pre-season special physical and technical training model for ski racing elite

PhD, Associate Professor L.A. Onuchin3
PhD, Associate Professor I.S. Moskalenko1
PhD, Associate Professor V.V. Volskiy4
PhD, Associate Professor V.P. Ivashchenko²
PhD, Associate Professor K.M. Komissarchik ²
¹Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Saint Petersburg
² Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Saint Petersburg
3Saint Petersburg State Institute of Film and Television, Saint Petersburg
4Saint Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation, Saint Petersburg

Keywords: special physical training of elite racing skier, skier training process management, skier’s special physical and technical fitness monitoring. 

Background. The latest competitive regresses of the national skiers and biathletes on the global arenas have urged the national sports community to develop training systems and progress management methods and tools to facilitate, among other things, the athlete-coach cooperation for success. Physical and technical competitive fitness may be defined as the product of the long-term training system with the relevant endurance building and resourcing elements and individual motor skills excellence trainings for success. Leading national experts in the sports theory and practice give a special priority to the most efficient and promising modern training systems, models and tools, with the highest attention to the mid-seasonal (snowless) physical and technical conditioning elements geared to prevent the natural regresses in the fine motor skills, movement coordination qualities and techniques [1, 2, 5]. We have analyzed in our prior studies some special training practices and training system management elements applicable in the pre-season period [1, 5].

Objective of the study was to analyze benefits of a new special physical and technical training model for the ski racing elite applicable in the snowless training period.

Methods and structure of the study. The new special physical and technical training model testing experiment was run in April to January, with the Reference Group (RG) trained traditionally and the Experimental Group (EG) trained under the special physical and technical training model with its micro-cycles. Special physical fitness tests in the experimental period were based on a biomechanical analysis of the snow skiing and snowless roller skiing techniques. As it has been demonstrated in our prior studies, the snow technique imitation practices tend to mimic the skiing movements in general terms being largely different in the internal technical specifics. In practical tradition, they are used to improve the skiing techniques and athlete’s functionality.

It should be emphasized that a standard roller skiing technique was found to significantly differ from the snow skiing one in 6 of 20 test rates including 12.8% difference in the elementary movement speeds and 9% difference in the angular test rates. We offered a set of special exercises simulating the core roller skiing techniques of special benefits for the technical and physical training of the ski racing elite [2-5], particularly in the snowless season. We have also analyzed some factors of special influence on the ski stride cycle speed with a special attention to the movement structure transformations with progress in the skiing techniques customizable to the track conditions.

These individual technical transformations are generally geared to optimize the movement elements so as to achieve and maintain the highest racing speed allowed by the specific track situation, with such speed interpreted as highest best for the track conditions with no excessive fatigue for the skier. This point may be further clarified by a componential analysis of the high-speed stride. Thus a growth in the movement cadence (pace) with no change to the stride length requires a higher energy cost i.e. exposes the skier to fast fatigue. Pace growth normally results in a shorter stride and, hence, slows down the racing speed. Therefore, a high-speed movement sequence shall be strictly balanced in its elements, and this is the reason why the skiing technique excellence trainings give such a high priority to the movement harmony indicator that may be defined as the stride length to stride frequency ratio: see Table 1.

Table 1. Classic diagonal stride technique harmony ratios of the ski racing elite on plain tracks

 

Track conditions

Harmony ratio

1

Excellent

2,35

2

Good

1,70

3

Thaw

1,46

4

Mushy track

1,42

 

The EG techniques with the movement speed elements were tested for classical diagonal and kick double poling strides as statistically dominant in the modern sport. The stride harmony ratios were calculated based on analysis of the pre- versus post-experimental competitive performance video captures.

Results and discussion. The experimental data analysis found significant differences in the EG and RG progress in the movement harmony ratios. The pre-experimental tests (in March) found the intergroup classic diagonal stride harmony difference insignificant at 1.59 and 1.61 in the EG and RG, respectively, with RG being 1.2% ahead. The mid-experimental (December) classic diagonal stride harmony test found falls of 1.8% and 7.2% and absolute values of 1.56 and 1.49 in the EG and RG, respectively, with the 4.2% advantage of the EG. And the post-experimental (late January) classic diagonal stride harmony tests found progress of 6.6% (to 1.67) and 1.8% (to 1.52) in the EG and RG, respectively – with the RG rated 9.0% under the optimal classic diagonal stride harmony ratio. On the whole, the EG was tested to make progress of 4.9% versus the RG regress of 5.5% on the harmony ratio scale: see Table 2.

Table 2. Group classic diagonal stride harmony ratio test data: pre-, mid- and post- experimental tests (1, 2 and 3) (X±S)

Group

Classic diagonal stride harmony ratio

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

EG

1,59±0,15

1,56±0,12

1,67±0,1

RG

1,61±0,12

1,49±0,15

1,52±0,13

р

>0,05

<0,05

˂0,05

 
Much the same progress was found on the kick double poling stride harmony ratio test scale: see Table 3. The pre-experimental tests rated the EG and RG kick double poling harmony ratio at 1.56 and 1.62 on average, respectively, with 3.8% advantage of the RG. The mid-experimental test in December rated the EG and RG kick double poling harmony ratio at 1.49 and 1.43 (3.7% different), with the falls of 4.1% and 11.6%, respectively. And the post-experimental test in February found the EG kick double poling harmony ratio to grow by 8.6% to the optimal value of 1.63 – versus the 5.5% growth in the RG (still 6.8% under the optimal value).

Therefore, the tests found the classic diagonal stride / kick double poling harmony ratios in the EG to slightly fall in the mid-time and then reach the optimal level by the season (January) and stay at this level till February. The RG was tested with a significant fall of the harmony ratio at the end of regular season with a small rise in the early season.

Table 3. Group kick double poling stride harmony ratio test data: pre-, mid- and post- experimental tests (1, 2 and 3) (X±S)

Group

Classic diagonal stride harmony ratio

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

EG

1,56±0,12

1,49±0,14

1,63±0,08

RG

1,62±0,13

1,43±0,17

1,52±0,14

р

>0,05

˂0,05

˂0,05

 
On the whole, the systemic and harmonized training system with regular progress tests in the training and competitive process was found to facilitate special physical fitness building on a sound technical test basis. It should be emphasized that in every training cycle the coaches shall closely test progress and stress tolerances, with the costs and benefits of every training session closely and prudently managed in the pre-season prior to the major events.

Conclusion. Our study of the ski racing technique biomechanics showed benefits of the new special physical and technical training model with micro-cycled workload management elements and roller skiing trainings in the snowless period, with a special emphasis in the pre-season. The model was tested beneficial by the EG versus RG progress tests on the whole and classic diagonal stride / kick double poling harmony rating tests in particular.

References

  1. Onuchin L.A. Concentrated distribution of special training means for senior racing skiers at summer-autumn training stage. Modern problems of theory and practice of physical education and sports of the academies of the state service of the Russian Federation and universities of St. Petersburg. Proc. interuniversity scientific-practical conference on physical education of students, dedicated to the 15th anniversary of the formation of North-West Academy of Public Administration. Saint Petersburg: North-West Academy of Public Administration publ., 2006. pp. 175-178.
  2. Onuchin L.A. Ski tunnel practices in snowless season in elite cross-country skiing. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury. 2018. no. 9. pp. 75-77.
  3. Onuchin L.A. Correlation of technical and functional training of senior cross-country skiers in snowless season. Theory and practice of education and teaching process management: pedagogical, social and psychological problems. Collected works. Saint Petersburg: BPA publ., 2013. pp. 202-204.
  4. Onuchin L.A. Analysis of racing skiers’ technical fitness by harmony in snowless season. Theory and practice of education and teaching process management: pedagogical, social and psychological problems. Collected works. Saint Petersburg: BPA publ., 2014. Pp. 183-186.
  5. Timofeev M.Yu. Roller-skis-assisted training process design in cross-country skiing in snowless period. PhD diss.. Saint Petersburg: Herzen RSPU publ., 2002. 151 p.

Corresponding author: onuchin.l@yandex.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to analyze benefits of a new special physical and technical training model for the ski racing elite applicable in the snowless training period.

Methods and structure of the study. We offered a set of special exercises mimicking the core roller skiing technique of special benefits for the technical and physical training of the ski racing elite [2-5], particularly in the snowless season. We have also analyzed some factors of special influence on the ski stride cycle speed with a special attention to the movement structure transformations with progress in the skiing techniques customizable to the track conditions. The new special physical and technical training model testing experiment was run in April to January, with the Reference Group trained traditionally and the Experimental Group trained under the special physical and technical training model with its micro-cycles. Special physical fitness tests were based on a biomechanical analysis of the snow and snowless roller skiing techniques. As was demonstrated by our prior studies, the snow technique imitation practices tend to mimic the skiing movements in general terms being largely different in the internal technical specifics. In practical tradition, they are used to improve the skiing techniques and athlete’s functionality.

Results and conclusion. The snow skiing technique imitation practices tend to simulate the skiing movements in general terms being largely different in the internal technical specifics. In practical tradition, they are used to improve the skiing techniques and athlete’s functionality. Our study of the ski racing technique biomechanics showed benefits of the new special physical and technical training model with micro-cycled workload management elements and roller skiing trainings in the snowless period, with a special emphasis at the precompetitive stage. The model was tested beneficial by the Experimental Group versus Reference Group progress tests on the whole and classic diagonal stride / kick double poling harmony rating tests in particular.